For Kesha A. Grey

Territorial Inequality Commonalities With France

1. Economic Decline following 1980s a. Jobless people-hard to find job to secure their lives

2. Homogenous Class Structure a. Similar academic background (places for high concentration of jobless, high

concentration of poverty) 3. Predominance of Minorities

a. Policy makes it difficult for the minorities to get out b. France: public health care

4. High Level of Racism ⇒ add a layer of difficulties for the people (for getting a better job and housing) to reinforce the Territorial Marginalization in the city Differences w/ the US

1. Suburban Poverty in France a. US:The central cities in 1980 are called “inner city”

i. The segregation is inside the city in the US while the segregation is outside the city in France

2. A Greater Ethnic Heterogeneity a. US: racialized together

3. Strong presence of Government:​ school, transit, social programs, keep connections alive → strong welfare support system

a. Such as after school program, transportation, housing are free b. US: Under the policy of neoliberalism, all the social welfare supports are rolled

back, more costly ----- Territorial Stigmatization (results in the prejudice that can closed up the job and school oppt for people living in these area)

● Stigmatizing the place ● Discriminatory effects of place ● Internalizing stigma ● Weakens solidarity and reinforces disorganization

Systematic Police Repression → Repression increasing in France, but the US is still in front ● Police abuse in France

○ High racial profiling ○ High rates of police brutality ○ High incarceration

● Systematic Police Repression in the US → systematic police repression increasing in France but the US is still far more repressive

○ 1990 Increase drug restriction policy

○ 1980 heavily biased against black population ■ Either in probation, in jail, or ...

○ Police shooting abnormally high (US is the outlier compared to other countries) ■ 97 fatal police shootings in March 2015

○ Police shooting racially biased Contradictory Ideologies

● Ideal of equality ○ US Liberty and Justice for all

■ Each individual’s background should not determine their future ○ France: Republicanism

● Discriminatory norms and practices ○ US: white supremacy and police repression ○ France: Colonialism and police repression

● Triggers: unjust act-representative of other unjust acts (not isolated events) ○ US: Michael brown in ferguson, freddie grey in balitomine ○ France: death of 3 teens in clichy-sous bois

Summary:

1. Systemic territorial inequalities 2. Systemic stigmatization of low income places by media and upper income people 3. System police Repression 4. Contradictory Ideologies: equality and repression 5. Weak Advocacy organization - transmit grievance as an advocacy 6. Killings and police brutality as triggers

-- part 2. Making social justice in the city-- 4. Small resistance connects to organization Create a communication opera to transform 6. Growing mobilization, sanctuary city and state Org. also use this to argue the pass of sanctuary state (new state law to protect the immigrants) for the immigrants rights 7. Policies: protecting right to the city and state A law is passed// supports for R → LA was not always a supportive environment for minorities and low income groups Subversive Culture The model of the unjust city 1990s → the model to make the just city 2000s Contrasting representation

1. Diversity of ​Specialized​ insurgent cluster

a. Immigrants rights org. b. Labor org. c. Religious org. d. Intellectuals org.

2. Weak Ties between Activist Clusters became thickening ties → consolidating ties: contacts points and acquaintance allow them to know other folks in other org -- New Activist Clusters: new immigrant radicals, unions, intellectuals Summary: activist society split between old guard and new activist

● 1990s: intellectuals (planners) + immigrants radicals + unions started to work with each others/ thickening ties through key campaigns

○ Ex, justice for janitors, living wage (community-benefits agreement), Figueroa Corridor

Disgruntled Youth in City

● Economic Recession in 1970s ● Cultural Dismay ● Political Disillusionment

→ Economic change and decline // music becomes commercialization Subversive Youths Across Cities

● Artists gather in NYC & London: Centers of Punk ○ Started to form small group to perform-- shaping the culture ○ CBGB- People from similar background to produce new music and new cultural

■ Provide a single place for people to create, meet, and learn how to produce music

■ Creation of democratic idea of how music should be ● Connecting to LA ● Increasing number in LA-The germs (the first band in LA)

○ Movement from one city to another city Consolidating a Core Group of Subversives

● Growing numbers ● Institutionalization- connecting places

○ Ex. LA The Masque & Canterbury apt. (abandoned places) ■ It becomes totally compensate in your life

○ Literature (fanzines-slash): discourse of language, start to identify new places going on → allow more human beings to connect to each others (brand new creating by people with their own hands)

○ Distribution (bomp records) ● Social networks:

○ Appropriating abandoned urban spaces ■ resulting in spaces that are devalued bc ppl left to go to suburban ■ creating new groups, new cites, new socialization, new songs

○ Proximity

■ Music group became their priority over different types ■ Strong bonds created, a commitment to the project

○ Multiplex networking ■ You started to see the same people at work, at home, during play

● Faster Growth and Group Complexity ○ Fast growth

■ More bands, more media, more venues --- The Revenge of the Suburban Punk and Post Metropolitan Landscapes

● Diffusing out from the center throughout the southern california ● Suburban spinoffs (southern cali & OC) ● Blocked from the center

Subversive nodes connecting across the region

● New institutions- bands started to form their own groups out of hollywood (to form their own spaces and take over the college radio stations)

○ A new creation of the new generation of punk not settled in hollywood but in the suburban

○ Form a new culture different from the dominant culture ● Connections across suburbs

Punk Challenging Middle Class, Suburban Culture Placing Barrio Punk in Context

● The Roaring 1980s: Growing oppt for some, but not for others ● Barrio Punk: critique, racial adjustment

New Group Formation-new cultural project

● Emergence: friends at school ○ Sharing ideas, developing a new culture

● Innovations- mix Rejected by all sides

● Rejected by minority community + some in white punk community (racism in punk society in LA) → thereby they create their new own spaces, allowing for them to connect with others

Spatial Diffusion and Mainstreaming: Punk is Dead

● Major diffusion ● Larger audience ● Great Commercial Value

→ More difficult to maintain subversion → Still inspiring aggrieved youths (provide language)