intercultural communication ( the Environmental Contexts)

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Neuliep, Intercultural Communication, 7e. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

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Learning Objectives

Compare and contrast high- and low-load environments.

Discuss the relationship between culture and the natural environment.

Discuss the relationship between culture and the built environment.

Compare and contrast the housing patterns of different cultures.

Neuliep, Intercultural Communication, 7e. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

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Learning Objectives

Compare and contrast cultural preferences for privacy.

Compare and contrast monochromic and polychromic time orientations.

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How we see the environment around us is influenced by our individual psychological perceptions, which, in turn, are shaped by culture.

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Environmental Contexts

Natural/Physical Environment

Geographical Place

Terrestrial Location

Built Environment

Architecture

Landscaping

Housing

Perceptual Environment

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Environments & Information Load

Information rate: amount of information contained or perceived in the environment per some unit of time.

High load

Uncertain, complex, dense, random, improbable

Low load

Certain, simple, sparse, patterned, probable

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SOURCE: Adapted from Mehrabian, A. (1976). Public Places and Private Spaces: The Psychology of Work, Play, and Living Environments. New York: Basic Books.

Environments & Information Load

Affect feelings in three ways:

Arousal-Non-arousal

Pleasure-Displeasure

Dominance-Submissiveness

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Culture & the Natural/Terrestrial Environment

Some aspects exist in every culture

Influences life in that culture

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Worldviews of the Natural Environment

Omnipotent Nature

Harmony with Nature

Controlling Nature

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Natural Disasters as Cultural and Social Events

Cultures manage disaster based on their view of nature

Disasters provide opportunity for Intercultural Communication

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Influence of Social Phenomena on Natural Disasters

Impact of disasters influenced by power distance

Women disproportionately affected

Violence against women increases after natural disasters

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Influence of Social Phenomena on Natural Disasters

Impact of disasters influenced by social factors

Age, Ethnicity, Social Class Standing, Disability

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The Built Environment

Adaptations to the terrestrial environment…

Include architecture, housing, lighting, landscaping, etc.

Artificially change natural patterns of behavior, heat, light, sound, odor and human communication.

Reflect the values, motivations, and resources of the culture.

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The Built Environment: Layout Patterns

Fixed-feature space

Semi-fixed feature space

Informal space

Adaptable or Flexible space

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Hall’s Classification of Social Distances

Intimate Distance

Personal Distance

Social-Consultative distance

Public distance

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AP Photo/CHINATOPIX

Japanese Housing: New Approaches

Kyosho Jutaku

Microhomes or Ultrasmall Homes

Vertical space vs Horizontal space

Measure space in 3-D not floor space

Capsule Hotels

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Koichi Kamoshida/Staff/Getty

Japanese Housing: Traditional

Shoji/Fusuma (opaque sliding screen)

Yuka (floor)

Tatami mats

Reception/Sitting Room

Garden & Tokonoma

Private rooms: kitchen and bathroom.

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American Navajo Housing

Hogan

Space used differently based on sex

Ramada

Space and division of labor not divided based on sex

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Muslim Homes

Privacy

Between neighbors

Between males and females

Between family members

Individual privacy

Visual Privacy

Acoustic Privacy

Olfactic Privacy

Modesty

Physical

Inner

Hospitality

Reception of guests

Entertainment of guests

Public Hospitality

Semipublic Hospitality

Private Hospitality

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Types of Privacy

Solitude

Isolation

Intimacy w/family

Intimacy w/friends

Anonymity

Reserve

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James W. Neuliep

Purposes of Privacy

Personal Autonomy

Release of Emotions

Self-Evaluation

Communication

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Perceptions of Privacy in the U.S.

Types of Mediated Voyeurism

Video Verite Voyeurism

Reconstruction Voyeurism

Tell-All/Show-All Voyeurism

Sexual Voyeurism

Privacy Acts

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Cross-Cultural Variations on Privacy

United States

China

Turkey

Java

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Online Privacy Across Cultures

Gender

Individualistic/Collectivistic

Power Distance

Education

Convenience

Surveillance

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Collecting Personal Electronic Information: China

Publish Policies re: data practices

Inform individuals of purpose, method, scope of data collection

Obtain consent prior to collection

Implement measures to protect individuals’ against theft, loss, and damage

Refrain from selling or illegally disclosing information

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Take immediate remedial measures if information is compromised

Refrain from sending commercial electronic communications to landline, mobile phone or email without consent

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Collecting Personal Electronic Information: China

Time Orientation

Monochronic (M-time) orientation

Polychronic (P-time) orientation

Time orientation influences:

Scheduling

Housing space

Business practices

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Monochronic (M-Time) Orientation

Time is money

Linear, compartmentalized, measurable, discrete

Scheduling is paramount

Dictates daily activities, limits number of activities

Dictates relationships

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Monochronic (M-Time) Orientation

Time is Power

M-Time is learned

Creates Anxiety

Creates artificial patterns and sequences of behavior

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Polychronic (P-Time) Orientation

Schedules less important and frequently broken

People do many things at once.

Relationships take priority over schedules.

Tolerant of interruptions.

In the present guides behavior.

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