# Project Management

Crater Lake
Chapter12.ResourceManagement.pptx

Fifth Edition

Chapter 12

Resource Management

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1

Learning Objectives

12.1 Recognize the variety of constraints that can affect a project, making scheduling and planning difficult.

12.2 Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

12.3 Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

12.4 Follow the steps necessary to effectively smooth resource requirements across the project life cycle.

12.5 Apply resource management within a multiproject environment.

P M B o K Core Concepts

Project Management Body of Knowledge (P M B o K) covered in this chapter includes:

1. Estimate Activity Resources (P M B o K 6.4)

2. Plan Human Resource Management (P M B o K 9.1)

Types of Constraints

Physical

Time

Resource

Mixed

Table 12.2 Activity Precedence Table

 Activity Description Duration Predecessors Member Assigned A Assign Bids 5 days None Tom B Document Awards 5 days A Jeff C Calculate Costs 5 days A Jeff D Select Winning Bid 1 days B,C Sue E Develop P R Campaign 4 days D Carol

Figure 12.2 Sample Activity Network with Conflicts

Figure 12.3 Resource Usage Table Demonstrating Overallocation

The amount of individual resources a schedule requires during specific time periods.

Once the Work Breakdown Structure and activity networks are developed, create the resource loading form (or resource usage calendar)

The resource usage table shows:

Project team members

Time each activity is expected to take

Figure 12.5 Resource Usage Table

Figure 12.6 Example of Resource Usage Table with Overallocation

Resource Leveling

A process that address the complex challenges of project constraints (A K A resource smoothing).

Objectives:

To determine the resource requirements so that they will be available at the right time

To allow each activity to be scheduled with the smoothest possible transition across resource usage levels

Resource Leveling Heuristics for Prioritizing Allocation

Smallest amount of slack

Smallest duration

Lowest I D number (F C F S)

Requiring the most resources

General Procedure for Resource Leveling

Create a project activity network diagram.

Determine activity late finish dates.

Identify resource overallocation.

To construct a time-limited resource-loading chart for resource scheduling, there are six main steps to follow:

Create activity network.

Produce table for each activity, resource requirements, duration, early start time, slack, and late finish time.

List activities in order of increasing slack.

Draw an initial resource-loading chart with each activity scheduled at its earliest start time.

Rearrange activities within their slack to create a profile that is as level as possible.

Use judgment to interpret and improve activity leveling.

Figure 12.17 Sample Project Network

Table 12.7 Resource Staffing (Hourly Units) Required for Each Activity

 Activity Resource Duration Early Start Slack Late Finish A 6 4 0 0 4 B 2 1 4 0 5 C 2 3 4 4 11 D 7 4 5 0 9 E 3 2 9 0 11 F 6 1 11 0 12

Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments

Schedule Slippage

Resource Utilization

In-Process Inventory

Resolving Resource Decisions in Multiproject Environments

First In Line

Greatest Resource Demand

Greatest Resource Utilization

Minimum Late Finish Time

Mathematical Programming

Summary

Recognize the variety of constraints that can affect a project, making scheduling and planning difficult.

Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Follow the steps necessary to effectively smooth resource requirements across the project life cycle.

Apply resource management within a multiproject environment.