grography

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Ch456OutlineQuestionForm.docx

OUTLINE FOR SECTION 2: Chapters 4, 5, 6

Ch. 4: Atmospheric Pressure & Wind

Atmospheric pressure at sea level = ______ psi, ______ atmosphere, _______ bar, _______ mm Hg, ________ inches Hg ________mb

High Pressure = sinking, clear skies, anticyclonic flow

Low Pressure = rising, possibly cloudy, cyclonic flow

Pressure Gradient Force = air tries to move from high to low pressure

Pressure Gradient = pressure difference between isobars over a given distance

The Coriolis Effect bends flowing air to the… (right/left/none/clockwise/counterclockwise)

___________ in the northern Hemisphere. This promotes ________________ flow.

___________ in the Southern Hemisphere This promotes ________________ flow.

___________ at the Equator

The Coriolis Effect is greatest at the _________________ (location)

Is the Coriolis Effect is greatest with fast wind speeds or slow wind speeds?

Where are Frictional Winds are located?

Where are Geostrophic Winds located?

Describe and locate each of these Global Winds + Pressure Systems:

· ITCZ or doldrums

· Trade Winds

· STHPZ

· Westerlies

· SPLPZ (and polar jet stream)

· Polar Easterlies

· Polar High

· Hadley Cell

· Ferrel Cell

· Polar Cell

What are these local winds, where do they blow from/to, when do they blow & why are they significant?

· Summer Monsoons

· Winter Monsoons

· Sea Breezes

· Land Breezes

· Santa Ana Winds

Ch. 5 - Atmos. Moisture+ Precipitation

What are the 3 Phases of Water?

Define these terms related to the changing phase of water

· Evaporation

· Condensation

· Freezing

· Melting

· Sublimation

· Deposition

Define these terms and show where they fir into the Hydrologic Cycle

· Evaporation

· Condensation

· Advection

· Precipitation

· Infiltration

· Soil Water

· Groundwater

· Runoff

· Ponding

· Transpiration

· Evapotranspiration

Where is most water located on the Earth?

Where is most non-salty water located on the Earth?

Where is most non-salty, non-frozen water located on Earth?

What percentage of Earth’s water is found in the form of …

Oceans and Seas __________________ ?

Glaciers and Ice Sheets _____________ ?

Soil Water and Groundwater_________ ?

What is Humidity?

What is Relative Humidity (RH)?

What is the formula we use to calculate RH?

How does RH change when temperature changes?

When would we normally get our lowest RH near the earth’s surface in Glendale?

What is AMR and how does it change when temperature changes?

What is SMR and how does it change when temperature changes?

List the 6 Steps to Precipitation in order

What exactly is ‘dirty moist air’?

What is adiabatic cooling?

Define each of the following:

· Dew Point (Td)

· Lifting Condensation Level (LCL)

· Saturation

· Condensation

What do all 4 of these have in common?

What does coalescence mean?

Cloud Classifications are based mainly on the cloud’s height, composition & form. Define each of these prefixes for cloud forms:

· Alto

· Cirro

· Cumulo

· Strato

· Nimbo

Define each of these cloud types and types of weather associated with them:

· Cirrus

· Cumulus

· Stratus

· Nimbostratus

· Cumulonimbus

Describe these Types of Precipitation, their unique qualities and where we find them

· Rain

· Drizzle

· Snow

· Sleet

· Hail

What are the main ways we get air to rise and form clouds?

What are the wettest parts of the planet? Why?

What are the wettest parts of the USA’s contiguous 48 states? Why?

Define Dew

Define Frost

Define Fog

Under which conditions is fog most likely to form?

Which time of day and time of year are we most likely to encounter fog?

Describe these Fog Types and their locations:

· Radiation fog

· Evaporation fog

· Advection fog

· Upslope fog

Chapter 6: Air Masses & Storms

Define Air Mass

Define Air Mass Source Region

Describe the 4 main types of Air masses that affect the contiguous 48 states and where are their Source Regions?:

· cP

· cT

· mP

· mT

Which of these are the most opposite of each other in terms of temperature and moisture?

What is a Rossby Wave?

When do Rossby Waves become severe?

What is a Mid-Latitude (Extra-Tropical) Wave Cyclone?

Define the following, how are they are shown on a weather map, and how fast do they move?

· Cold Front

· Warm Front

· Low Pressure Center

· Occluded Front

What makes a winter storm begin and what makes it end?

Define the following, indicate how they form, when they form, where they form, where they don’t form, any unique details about them & why they’re important to study:

· Tornadoes

· Hurricanes

· Thunderstorms

What’s the difference between a Water Spout, a Funnel Cloud and a Tornado?

What’s the difference between a Tropical Storm and Hurricane?

Where do we find MOST Thunderstorms on the planet?

Where do we find NO Thunderstorms on the planet?

What are the 3 stages of thunderstorm development?

What is ENSO?

What is the Southern Oscillation?

What is El Niňo?

What are the 3 Phases of ENSO and for each, how do they affect the air pressure, sea surface temperatures, storminess, fisheries and cold water upwelling across the Pacific?

How would a strong El Niňo phase affect Southern California?

· For Northern Hemisphere anticyclones, are they associated with rising air or sinking air, clear skies or cloudy skies, outward or inward air flow, clockwise or counterclockwise flow?

· What are the Northeast Trade Winds, where do they come from, where do they blow to?

· What are Santa Ana winds, when do we get them, where do they come from, what conditions do they create for us?

· What’s the difference between evaporation, transpiration and evapotranspiration?

· As air gets colder what happens to AMR?     SMR?     RH?

· What’s the difference between LCL, Dew Point and Condensation?

· What is a Cumulonimbus cloud, what are the stages for its formation, and what type of weather is it associated with in its mature stage?

· What’s the difference between fog, dew and frost?

· What are the main difference between cP and mT air masses?

· What are hurricanes, how do they form, when do they form, where do they occur?

· Where in the Equatorial Pacific do you find the colder Sea Surface Temperatures, drier weather, and stronger cold-water upwelling during a La Nina phase of ENSO?