system/ecology theory

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CDU APA 6th

Referencing Style Guide (February 2019 version)

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Contents

APA Fundamentals .......................................................................................... 3

Reference List ................................................................................................... 3

Citing in the text ............................................................................................... 5

Paraphrase ................................................................................................... 5

Direct quotes................................................................................................. 5

Secondary source .......................................................................................... 6

Personal communications............................................................................. 6

Examples .......................................................................................................... 7

Book .............................................................................................................. 7

eBook ............................................................................................................ 7

Journal article with doi ................................................................................ 7

Journal article without doi ........................................................................... 7

Web page ...................................................................................................... 7

Books - print and online ................................................................................... 8

Single author ................................................................................................ 8

eBook/electronic book ................................................................................ 11

Journal articles, Conference papers and Newspaper articles ........................ 13

Multimedia ..................................................................................................... 16

YouTube or Streaming video ..................................................................... 16

Online images ................................................................................................. 17

Web sources and online documents ................................................................ 20

Web page .................................................................................................... 20

Document from a website ........................................................................... 21

Legislation and cases ...................................................................................... 23

Common abbreviations .................................................................................. 24

Appendix 1: How to write an APA reference when information is missing .. 25

Appendix 2: Author layout for in-text citations ............................................. 26

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APA Fundamentals

Reference List

The reference list identifies the items cited in a document in enough detail, so they can be located by another person. The elements required for a reference list are outlined below:

• The reference list appears at the end of the article/report/document, starting on a new page.

• The reference list is headed by the title References, centred and bold.

• The reference list is organised in alphabetical order by first named authors or title if there is no author (ignore the words ‘A’, ‘An’, and ‘The’ when alphabetising by title). See “How do I…?” on the APA Referencing Guide.

• Each reference should be separated from the next reference by one empty line.

• All references should have a hanging indent (of 5-7 spaces) for the second and subsequent lines of each entry. See “How do I…?” on the APA Referencing Guide.

• Remove hyperlinks from URLs and DOIs. See “How do I…?” on the APA Referencing Guide.

• When the reference entry includes a URL that must be divided between two lines, break it before a slash or dash or at

another logical division point. i.e.: http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/mf/4102.0/opendocument#frombanner=LN /socialtrends/Australia/Northern Territory

• Capitalisation in APA style is very specific. In titles and subtitles of articles, chapters, books, reports and webpage titles, capitalise only the first letter of the first word of the title, the sub title and any proper nouns. For journal titles you must capitalise the first letter of every word (except for words like ‘in’, ‘at’, ‘of’, ‘the’)

• Italicise book titles, journal titles, and volume numbers. Do NOT italicise issue numbers.

• References cited in text must appear in the reference list and vice versa. The only exceptions to this rule are personal

communications and entire websites; they are cited in text only and are not included in the reference list.

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• Use only the initial(s) of the author’s given name(s), not the full name. E.g. Robert Mark Smith will appear as Smith, R. M.

• If no date is listed on a resource, use n.d. (no date) instead. Example of citation: (Author, n.d.) / Example of reference: Author. (n.d.). Title. Retrieved from URL

• If the reference list includes 2 or more entries by the same author(s), list them in chronological order with the earliest first: Reference: Jones, J. (2012). Travel tips. Retrieved from URL In-text citation: (Jones, 2012) Reference: Jones, J. (2016). Worst holidays ever. Retrieved from URL In-text citation: (Jones, 2016) If the sources were published by the same author in the same year add a letter after the date in-text and in the reference: Reference: Smith, J. (2014a). Best food ever. Retrieved from URL In-text citation: (Smith, 2014a) Reference: Smith, J. (2014b). Chocolate is great. Retrieved from URL In-text citation: (Smith, 2014b) If the sources were published by the same author, and don’t have a date, use (n.d.) and list as follows: Reference: St John. (n.d.-a). Burns. Retrieved from URL In-text citation: (St John, n.d.-a) Reference: St John. (n.d.-b). Scalds. Retrieved from URL In-text citation: (St John, n.d.-b)

• Place of publication: Follow the city name with the abbreviation for the state or the full name of the country, e.g. Melbourne, Vic., or London, England. If you do not have the city, use the state, e.g. NSW, Australia

• If a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is listed on an electronic source it is included in the reference. A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that is used to identify a certain source (typically journal articles). It is often found on the first page of an article. An acceptable DOI does not include any CDU or ‘ezproxy’ information:

▪ Acceptable DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014 - see ‘Journal article online: with doi’ (p. 13) http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014 - see ‘Journal article online: with doi’ (p. 13) doi:10.1037/arc0000014 - see ‘Journal article with doi’ (p. 7)

▪ Not acceptable DOI: http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.cdu.edu.au/10.1016/j.colegn.2015.09.002

• If the article doesn’t have a DOI then provide the URL. E.g. Retrieved from http://pit.sagepub.com/lookup/pmid =272

• It is possible to use an abbreviated version of an organisational author in text, but you must use it in full the first time. In-text example: (World Health Organization [WHO], 2014). Use square brackets if it is within parentheses. In your reference list use the full name of the author.

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Citing in the text

The purpose of citing in-text is to provide brief information about the source used. The complete information about the source is listed in the alphabetical list of references at the end of the document.

Paraphrase When paraphrasing only include author and year in your citation – e.g. (Jones, 2015). However, your lecturer may request you include a page number in your citation – e.g. (Jones, 2015, p. 3).

Direct quotes

When you use a direct quotation in your writing you must enclose the quote in double quotation marks and cite the source including page numbers.

For example:

Issues surround the imitation of real world buildings as they “serve the important function of grounding users’ expectations and providing affordances for them to effectively move through space, they can also be limiting” (Ball & Bainbridge, 2008, p. 118).

Block Quotes If a quote is 40 words or more, omit quotation marks and use a block format with the quote indented about 1cm (or 5 spaces) from the left margin and double-space the entire paragraph.

They had a less good walk back, simply because they hit the upper waters of the north

west river at the wrong place and had to walk two miles upstream to cross it. In the

middle of the crossing Thelma found a thalloid liverwort and to Hugh’s astonishment

stopped to collect it. (Davies, 2010, p. 62)

Altering a direct quote

When you need to leave out part of a quotation to make it fit grammatically or because it contains irrelevant/unnecessary information, insert ellipses (three dots). If you add or slightly change words within a quotation for reasons of grammar or clarity, indicate the change with square brackets. “Drug prevention…[efforts] backed this up” (Gardner, 2007, p. 49).

Anonymous author When a work's author is designated as "Anonymous", cite in the text the word Anonymous followed by a comma and the date. For example: (Anonymous, 2006)

Multiple authors When citing multiple authors check the “Author layout for in-text citations”

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Pinpointing a specific part of a resource with no page number

Often electronic sources don’t include page numbers, or you want to pinpoint a specific section of a document. It may be useful to include a paragraph number; section number or use the words the source uses instead if the source is lengthy. For example:

ACARA (n.d., ACELA1443) aptly phrased it…

… (Beutler, 2000, para. 5)

Secondary source (secondary citation)

You read Lister’s article. In that article Lister refers to Miller’s ideas. You are encouraged to find Miller’s work. If you can’t find Miller’s work, cite Miller’s ideas like this:

… simple definition of social justice (Miller, as cited in Lister, 2007).

OR

Miller’s simple definition of social justice (as cited in Lister, 2007).

Do not include the date of Miller’s work. You include the Lister article in your reference list:

Lister, R. (2007). Social justice. Benefits, 15(2), 113–125. doi:10.33.44.555/list

Two or more references within the same parentheses

Order citations of two or more works by different authors within the same brackets alphabetically in the same order they appear in the reference list. Separate the citations with semicolons.

For example: (Megarrity, 2018; Sullivan, 2014; Tafransky & Mahoney, 2016).

Personal communications Cite personal communications in text only, for example, personal unpublished photos, conversations, emails, interviews, personal files, documents from an intranet (e.g. hospital policy) i.e. any resource that is not accessible to your reader.

Format: (Author, personal communication, Month date, year):

…as stated in the Infection control guideline (Royal Darwin Hospital, personal communication, September 4, 2018).

… guidelines were provided in a conversation with the Director of Nursing (R. Smith, personal communication, September 4, 2018).

Materials from Learnline should be referenced because they are available to the reader (e.g. your lecturer or marker).

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Examples

Here are some basic examples of CDU-APA 6th style. More detailed examples are included throughout this guide. Where no exact

example is provided these general principles should be followed.

Book

author date book title in italics edition place of publication publisher

Dinham, J. (2014). Delivering authentic arts education (2nd ed.). South Melbourne, Vic.: Cengage Learning.

eBook

author date book title in italics edition URL

Dinham, J. (2014). Delivering authentic arts education (2nd ed.). Retrieved from https://ebookcentral-proquest

-com.ezproxy.cdu.edu.au/lib/cdu/reader.action?ppg=2&docID=1990987&tm=1545024544990

Journal article with doi

authors date article title journal title in italics volume in italics(issue)

Fowler, M. D., & Davis, A. J. (2013). Ethical issues occurring within nursing education. Nursing Ethics, 20(2), 126-141.

doi:10.1177/0969733012474290 doi page numbers

Journal article without doi

author date article title journal title in italics volume in italics(issue) page numbers

Levy, L. (2018). The role of podiatric medicine in public health. Podiatry Management, 37(2), 119-122. Retrieved from

http://ezproxy.cdu.edu.au/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,uid&db=rzh&AN=1290

92815&site=ehost-live URL

Web page

author date web page title webpage URL

Better Health Channel. (2013). Smoking tobacco is deadly. Retrieved from https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health

/healthyliving/smoking-tobacco-is-deadly

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Books - print and online

Important elements

Print book:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year of publication). Title of book (edition). Location of publication: Publisher.

eBook:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year of publication). Title of book: Subtitle. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of

the eBook

Reference Type

In-text example Reference list example EndNote Reference Type

Single author

… in relation to northern developments (Megarrity, 2018). OR Megarrity (2018) states that ...

Megarrity, L. (2018). Northern dreams: The politics of northern development in Australia. North Melbourne, Vic.: Australian Scholarly Publishing.

Book

2 authors

Roitman and La Fontaine (2012) ... OR “... achieve consistency” (Roitman & La Fontaine, 2012, p. 45)

Cite both names every time the in-text citation occurs

Roitman, J. L., & La Fontaine, T. P. (2012). The exercise professional’s guide to optimizing health: Strategies for preventing and reducing chronic disease. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health.

Book

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3-5 authors First citation: (Kerridge, Lowe, & Stewart, 2013) Subsequent citations: (Kerridge et al., 2013)

Cite all the names the first time the in-text citation occurs; in subsequent citations, use the surname of the first author followed by et al.

Kerridge, I., Lowe, M., & Stewart, C. (2013). Ethics and law for the health professions (4th ed.). Annandale, NSW: Federation Press.

These rules for referencing and citing multiple authors also apply for journal articles, reports … see “Author layout for in-text citations”

Book

6 or 7 authors

Bergin et al. (2018) found that... OR (Bergin et al., 2018) Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al.

Bergin, C. C., Bergin, D. A., Walker, S., Daniel, G., Fenton, A., & Subban, P. (2018). Child and adolescent development for educators. South Melbourne, Vic.: Cengage Learning Australia.

Include all authors in the reference. These rules for referencing and citing multiple authors also apply for journal articles, reports … see “Author layout for in-text citations”

Book

8 or more authors

(Kersemakers et al., 2017) Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al.

Kersemakers, A., Klesch, R., George, K., Royal, B., Williams, A., Cartwright, J., … Bailey, K. (2017). The chocolate eating habits of CDU librarians. Darwin, NT: CDU Press.

For works with 8 or more authors, list the first 6 authors, followed by 3 full stops (...) then the last author’s name. These rules for referencing and citing multiple authors also apply for journal articles, reports … see “Author layout for in-text citations”

Book

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No author

(Employment the professional way, 2000) OR the book Employment the professional way (2000) Shorten title and put in italics

Employment the professional way: A guide to understanding the Australian job search process for professionally qualified migrants. (2000). Carlton, Vic.: Australian Multicultural Foundation.

Book

Book: different editions

(Howitt & Cramer, 2016) Howitt, D., & Cramer, D. (2016). Introduction to research methods in psychology (5th ed.). Melbourne, Vic.: Pearson Australia.

Edition

Book: editor (Smith, 2015) Smith, J. A. (Ed.). (2015). Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to research methods (3rd ed.). London, UK: Sage.

Edited book

Book: organisation as

author

(Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2018)

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2018). Australia’s health 2018. Canberra: Author.

Where the author and publisher are identical, use the word ‘Author’ as the name of the publisher. (In EndNote place a comma after the corporate author)

Book

Chapter in an edited book or

book series

(Germov & Belcher, 2018)

Germov, J., & Belcher, H. (2018). Power, politics and healthcare. In J. Germov (Ed.), Second opinion: An introduction to health sociology (6th ed., pp. 448-477). Melbourne, Vic.: Oxford University Press.

Chapter author. (year of publication). Chapter title. In Book editor(s) (Ed. or Eds.),

Book title in italics (edition information, pp. chapter page numbers). Place of publication: Publisher or Retrieved from URL

If an author(s) is listed at the beginning of a chapter follow this format, otherwise reference as a whole book.

Edited book

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Book with volumes

(Mizrahi, 2008) (Kable & Govind, 2016)

Authored book: Mizrahi, T. (2008). Encyclopedia of social work (20th ed., Vol. 1).

Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Chapter in an edited book: Kable, A., & Govind, N. (2016). Nursing care of people having surgery.

In P. LeMone, K. M. Burke, G. Bauldoff, P. Gubrud-Howe, T. Levett-Jones, T. Dwyer, … D. Raymond (Eds.), Medical surgical nursing: Critical thinking for person-centered care (3rd Australian ed., Vol. 1, pp. 35-66). Melbourne, Vic.: Pearson Australia.

Book

eBook/electronic book online or

from library database, incl.

eReadings

(Vandenberg, 2018) eBook with doi

(Davies & Beech, 2018) eBook with URL

(Robertson, 2014) book in eReadings

Vandenberg, A. (2018). Education policy and the Australian Education Union. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-68047-7

Davies, G., & Beech, A. (2018). Forensic psychology: Crime, justice, law interventions (3rd ed.). Retrieved from http://ezproxy.cdu.edu.au/login?url=http://ebookcentral.proquest. com/lib/cdu/detail.action?docID=5018401

Robertson, M. (2014). Sustainability: Principles and practice. Retrieved from https://ereadings.cdu.edu.au/eserv/cdu:53362 /ER09416.pdf

Electronic book

Dictionary and Encyclopedia -

eBook

See p. 21 for an example of an

online dictionary

“Acid Rain” (2014) is … OR “… atmospheric pollution” (“Acid Rain”, 2014, p. 3)

Acid rain. (2014). In D. Kemp (Ed.), The environment dictionary (pp. 3- 9). Retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.com.ezproxy. cdu.edu.au/lib/cdu/reader.action?docID=165278&ppg=8

Edited book

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Dictionary - print (“Bathyorographical”, 1993)

Bathyorographical. (1993). In R. H. Hill (Ed.), Dictionary of difficult words (p. 61). New York, NY: Wiley.

Book

Brochure or pamphlet

(Cancer Council Australia, 2012)

Cancer Council Australia. (2012). Skin cancer [Brochure]. Sydney, Australia: Author.

Where the author and publisher are identical, use the word ‘Author’ as the name of the publisher. (In EndNote place a comma after the corporate author)

Book

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Journal articles, Conference papers and Newspaper articles

Important elements

See Books-print and online for information on multiple authors. Journal article: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year of publication). Title of article. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page–page.

doi:xxxx OR Retrieved from URL Newspaper article: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year, Month Day). Article title: Subtitle. Newspaper Title. Retrieved from URL Conference paper: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Conference paper title. Paper presented at the Conference Title, Place, State/Country.

Retrieved from URL

Reference Type

In-text example Reference list example EndNote Reference Type

Journal article- print

(Birbilis, 2018) Birbilis, J. (2018). When psychology and politics commingle. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 74(5), 730-733.

For journal titles you must capitalise the first letter of every word (except for words like ‘in’, ‘at’, ‘of’, ‘the’)

Journal article

Journal article online: with doi

(Levenson, 2017) Levenson, J. (2017). Trauma-informed social work practice. Social Work, 62(2), 105–113. https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/swx001

Electronic article

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Journal article online: no doi

(Moss, White, & Lee, 2018)

Moss, S., White, B., & Lee, J. (2018). A systematic review into the psychological causes and correlates of plagiarism. Ethics & Behavior, 28(4), 261-283. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.cdu.edu.au/login?url=https://www.tandfonline.co m/doi/abs/10.1080/10508422.2017.1341837

Electronic article

Article retrieved from Learnline,

eSpace or eReadings

(Arnold & Boggs, 2007)

Arnold, E., & Boggs, K. U. (2007). Structuring the relationship. Developmental Psychology, 25(2), 264-276. Retrieved from http://ereadings.cdu.edu.au/view/cdu:18679

Electronic article

Newspaper article online: available via the Web or

electronic database

(Parnell, 2018) Parnell, S. (2018, October 11). Health risk with early obesity. The Australian. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.cdu.edu.au/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.co m/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,uid&db=nfh&AN=9X9A USNEWSMMGLSTRY000376781678&site=ehost-live

Newspaper article

Newspaper article: no author

(“Two teen migrants”, 2018) Use first few words of article title in quotation marks

Two teen migrants caught crossing Mediterranean on truck tyre. (2018, December 16). The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved from https://www.smh.com.au/world/europe/two-teen-migrants- caught-crossing-mediterranean-on-truck-tyre-20181216- p50mj0.html

Newspaper article

Newspaper article: print

(Kelly, 2018) Kelly, P. (2018, December 15). Political catch-up splits the nation. Weekend Australian, p. 29.

Newspaper article

Conference paper (in published proceedings)

Burton (2017) outlines …

Burton, D. (2017). Flare: A national flash flood warning resource. In 2017 Floodplain Management Australia National Conference (pp. 1-9). Retrieved from http://www.floods.org.au/site/index.cfm?display=730745

Conference paper

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Conference Presentation

(Garces, 2017) Garces, E. (2017, July). Regulation of digital and intangible assets. Paper presented at ACCC/AER Regulatory Conference, Brisbane, QLD. Retrieved from https://www.accc.gov.au/about- us/conferences-events/accc-aer-regulatory-conference

Conference proceedings

Theses-print version

Rorrison (2006) examines …

Rorrison, D. (2006). Jumping through spinning hoops, chance or a carefully constructed learning journey? A critical view of learning in the secondary practicum. (Unpublished Master’s thesis). Charles Darwin University, NT, Australia.

Thesis

Theses - online Azam’s analysis (2016, p. 208) shows the “spectral peak …

Azam, S. (2016). Detection of binaural processing in the human brain. (PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2016). Retrieved from http://espace.cdu.edu.au/view/cdu:59624

Electronic article

Pre-print submitted, before

peer review

Post –Print accepted & peer

reviewed - not yet published

It is recommended to

use the published version of a paper if

it is available

Barclay (pre-print) suggests that… (Turnbull, post-print)

Barclay, L. (pre-print). Women and midwives: Position, problems and potential. Midwifery. Retrieved from http://espace.cdu.edu.au/view/cdu:6640

Turnbull, B. (post-print). Scholarship and mentoring: An essential

partnership? International Journal of Nursing Practice. Retrieved from http://espace.cdu.edu.au/view/cdu:10014

Electronic article

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Multimedia

Important elements

DVD or Film: Producer Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Producer), & Director Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Director). (Year). Title

of movie [Format e.g. Motion picture or DVD]. Country where movie was produced: Name of Studio. Video streaming: i.e. YouTube or Vimeo Author, A. A. OR Author screen name. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL of specific video

Reference Type

In-text example

Reference list example

EndNote Reference Type

DVD or videorecordings

(Hallam & Lam, 2010) Hallam, J. (Producer, Writer), & Lam, K. (Producer, Director). (2010). Staff relations in healthcare: Working as a team [DVD]. New York, NY: Insight Media.

Film or broadcast

Television programs

(McDermott, 2013) McDermott, Q. (Reporter). (2013, February 4). Lance and the truth [Television broadcast]. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au /4corners/stories/2013/02/04/3680186.htm

Online Multimedia

YouTube or Streaming video

... paraphrasing other’s work (CDUniLibrary, 2017)

CDUniLibrary. (2017, August 21). Cat capers: Adventures in academic integrity [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BzCipTk71Bc

Online Multimedia

Software (Physicians Interactive, 2017)

Physicians Interactive. (2017). Omnio: Clinical resource (Version 3.24.6) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/id293170168?mt=8&ign=uo%3D4

Computer program

iPad and other apps

(WebMD Health Corporation, 2012)

WebMD Health Corporation. (2012). Medscape (Version 4.0) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from http://itunes.apple.com

Computer program

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Online images

When using images, you must be aware of copyright and licencing restrictions. Not all images are freely available to use.

The best types of images to use are those with a Creative Commons (CC) licence. Watch this video on how to find and

cite an appropriately licenced image.

Image caption: From “Title of Image,” by A. Author, Year (URL). Licence (e.g. CC BY 2.0). Reference: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of image. Retrieved from URL

Place the in-text citation directly beneath the image as a caption. It is acceptable to resize the caption to a smaller font if it is too

long.

Example:

From “Sustainable Transport,” by A. Wellings, 2012 (https://flic.kr/p/cpBHSJ). CC BY-NC 2.0.

Reference:

Wellings, A. (2012). Sustainable transport. Retrieved from https://flic.kr/p/cpBHSJ

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Reference Type

In-text/caption example Reference list example

Online image – personal author

From “Zebra Finch,” by C. Williamson, 2009 (https://flic.kr/p/6Jepim). CC BY 2.0. From “Friendly Male Koala,” by Quartl, 2009 (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Frien dly_Male_Koala.JPG). CC BY-SA 3.0. Give the author’s name exactly as it appears on the source page of the image.

Williamson, C. (2009). Zebra finch. Retrieved from https://flic.kr/p/6Jepim

Quartl. (2009). Friendly male koala. Retrieved from

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki /File:Friendly_Male_Koala.JPG

Online image - organisation as author

From “Instituting an Electronic Medical Record System,” by CDC Global, 2014 (https://flic.kr/p/oGi1bs). CC BY 2.0. If the image has a long title, use only the first few words of the title in the in-text citation.

CDC Global. (2014). Instituting an electronic medical record system reduces the need to manage and store growing volumes of patient charts, a major challenge in resource- limited settings. Retrieved from https://flic.kr/p/oGi1bs

Include the full title of the image in the reference.

Image in the public domain or with CC0 Licence

From “Schematic Diagram of the Human Eye,” by Rhcastilhos, 2007 (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sche matic_diagram_of_the_human_eye_en.svg). In the public domain. From “Dog Swimming,” by P. Singhto, 2013 (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dog_ swimming.jpg). CC0 1.0. Cite images that are in the public domain or have a CC0 Licence even if no attribution is required.

Rhcastilhos. (2007). Schematic diagram of the human eye. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki

/File:Schematic_diagram_of_the_human_eye_en.svg

Singhto, P. (2013). Dog swimming. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dog_swimming.jpg

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Image with no title

The photo of a brown bear is by Rasmus Svinding, 2006 (https://www.pexels.com/photo/zoo-bear- 35435/). CC0. Provide a brief description of the image.

Svinding, R. (2006). [Brown bear]. Retrieved from https://www.pexels.com/photo/zoo-bear-35435/

Enclose the brief description of the photo in square brackets.

Image with no author

From “Group of Female Top Tennis Players, 1902,” 2012 (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Grou p_of_female_top_tennis_players,_1902.jpg). In the public domain. Omit the author element.

Group of female top tennis players, 1902. (2012). Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki

/File:Group_of_female_top_tennis_players,_1902.jpg Put the title in place of the author.

Citing an online image without reproducing it

In-text citation without reproducing the image: In the photo “Autumn Ivy” (Curtin University Library, 2007) …

Curtin University Library. (2007). Autumn ivy [Image]. Retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/photos/curtinuniversitylibrary

/1440410713

The APA blog explains what to do for images from other sources:

https://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2016/01/navigating-copyright-part-4.html

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Web sources and online documents

Important elements

Web Page: Personal Author or Organisation as Author. (Date, if not known, put n.d.). Title of web page. Retrieved from URL of web page Document from a web page (e.g. PDF, Word, Excel, PowerPoint): Personal Author or Organisation as Author. (Last update or copyright date; if not known, put n.d.). Title of document on a web

page. Retrieved from URL of specific document or page where the document is accessed from

Reference Type

In-text example

Reference list example

EndNote Reference Type

Web page: Organisation as

author

Web page: Personal author

(Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2016) (Wyatt, 2012)

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2016). How many Australians have diabetes? Retrieved from http://www.aihw.gov.au/how-common-is-diabetes/

Wyatt, H. (2012). WWF praises people power in spurring Australia marine parks decision. Retrieved from http://wwf.panda.org /who_we_are/wwf_offices/australia/great_barrier_Reef _ecoregion/?206737/WWF-praises-people-power-in-spurring -Australia-marine-parks-decision

Web Page

Web page: no date

(St John, n.d.) St John. (n.d.). Burns. Retrieved from https://www.stjohn.org.nz/First- Aid/First-Aid-Library/Burns/

Web Page

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Document from a website

(Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia, 2016)

Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia. (2016). Registered nurse standards for practice. Retrieved from http://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/Codes-Guidelines- Statements/Professional-standards.aspx

Electronic article

Document from Learnline

(Moss, 2019) Moss, M. (2019). HSC210 – Module one: Sociology for health professionals. Retrieved from https://online.cdu.edu.au /webapps/blackboard/content/listContentEditable.jsp?content _id=_2692267_1&course_id=_44041_1&mode=cpview

Electronic article

Standards (Standards Australia, 2018)

Standards Australia. (2018). Reinforced autoclaved aerated concrete: Construction (AS 5146.3:2018). Retrieved from https://www- saiglobal-com.ezproxy.cdu.edu.au/online/autologin.asp

Electronic article

Government document

(Department of the Environment and Energy, 2017)

Department of the Environment and Energy. (2017). Australia’s emissions projections 2017. Retrieved from http://www.environment.gov.au/climate- change/publications/emissions-projections-2017

Government document

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS)

(Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2013)

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2013). Regional population growth: Australia, 2011-2012 (cat. no. 3218.0). Retrieved from http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/Previousproducts /3218.0Main%20Features32011-12?opendocument&tabname =Summary&prodno=3218.0&issue=201112&num=&view=

Electronic article

Australian Curriculum Online

(Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority, n.d.)

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (n.d.). The Australian curriculum: Literacy. Retrieved from https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/f-10- curriculum/general-capabilities/literacy/

Electronic article

Reference from eMIMS or eTG

“Panadol” (2012) as listed in MIMS …

Panadol: Back & neck pain relief. (2012). In MIMS. Retrieved from https://www-mimsonline-com-au.ezproxy.cdu.edu.au/Search /ShowPDF.aspx?xmlDoc=08393.xml&XSLKey=PIxsl_pdf&Pat hKey=AbbrevPIxmlPath

Electronic article

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Article from a health database i.e.: Cochrane, Joanna Briggs

Institute

(Nguyen, 2017)

(Winter, Hunter, Sim, & Crome, 2011)

Nguyen, D. H. (2017). Wound packing: Clinical information. Joanna Briggs Institute Evidence Summary, (JBI241), 1-3. Retrieved from http://ovidsp.tx.ovid.com.ezproxy.cdu.edu.au/sp- 3.28.0a/ovidweb.cgi?&S=JCODFPAOIEDDKHDFNCFKFGMC JNKNAA00&Link+Set=S.sh.39%7c5%7csl_190

Winter, J., Hunter, S., Sim, J., & Crome, P. (2011). Hands-on therapy interventions for upper limb motor dysfunction following stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 201(6), 1-35. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006609.pub.2

Electronic article

Online blog (Becker, 2012) Becker, D. (2012, October 4). Cite what you see, cite what you use [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://blog.apastyle.org

/apastyle/2012/10/cite-what-you-see-cite-what-you-use.html

Blog

Online Dictionary or Encyclopedia

… art of teaching (“Education”, 2016)

Education. (2016). In Dictionary.com. Retrieved January 5, 2017, from http://www.dictionary.com/browse/education?s=t

Web page

Facebook page (Bureau of Meteorology, 2018)

Bureau of Meteorology. (2018, December 3). Spring 2018 was more than a degree warmer than average for Australia. Full climate summary at http://ow.ly/1nXc30mPQLD [Facebook update]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/bureauofmeteorology/photos/a.171 427712921137/2122857961111426/?type=3&theater

Twitter update or Tweet

(Trump, 2018)

Trump, D. [realDonaldTrump]. (2017, May 31). Who can figure out the true meaning of “covfefe”? [Tweet]. Retrieved from https:// twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/869858333477523458

Instagram photo

(Fox, 2018) Fox, M. J. [@realmikejfox]. (2018, June 5). It takes < than a min to learn how to save a life. Watch the video at handsonly.nyc #ICanSaveALife with #HandsOnlyCPR [Instagram photo]. Retrieved from https://www.instagram.com/p/BjppDLDBxRF/

For Instagram videos change text in square bracket

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Legislation and cases

Important elements

Act or Bill: Name of Act Year (Jurisdiction) Case: Case Name (Year) Volume Law Report Series Reporter Abbreviated Starting Page

Reference Type

In-text example

Reference list example

EndNote Reference Type

Acts and Bills ... according to s. 24.1 of the Anti-Discrimination Act 2018 (NT) ... The Social Security Commission Bill 2018 (Cth) establishes ...

Anti-Discrimination Act 2018 (NT) Social Security Commission Bill 2018 (Cth) If accessed electronically no additional details are required, cite as you would for print.

Legal Rule/ Regulation

Cases According to Carey v. Price (2005) ... ... in a land rights case (Mabo v. Queensland, 1988).

Carey v. Price (2005) 132 ALR 255 Mabo v. Queensland (1988) 166 CLR 186

Case

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Common abbreviations

App. appendix

Art. article

Ca. Circa

Chap. chapter

Div. division

ed. edition

Ed. / Eds. Editor / Editors

et al. and others (Latin et al)

n.d. no date

No. Nos. Number / Numbers

n.p. no place

p. pp. page(s)

para. paragraph

Pt. Part

Rev. ed. Revised edition

Sec. Section

Ser. Series

Suppl. Supplement

s.v. under the word (Latin sub verso)

Trans. Translator(s)

Vol. / Vols. Volume / Volumes

All examples are based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed., 2010 available

in the Library. A sample essay is available with examples of in-text citations and Reference list.

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Appendix 1: How to write an APA reference when information is missing

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Appendix 2: Author layout for in-text citations

In-text examples for first and subsequent citation. Reproduced from American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (p. 177). Washington: American Psychological Association.

Type of citation First citation with the author being a part of your text

Subsequent citations with the author being part of your text

First citation with all citation information in brackets

Subsequent citations with all citation information in brackets

One work by one author Walker (2017) Walker (2017) (Walker, 2017) (Walker, 2017)

One work by two authors Walker and Allen (2014) Walker and Allen (2014) (Walker & Allen, 2014) (Walker & Allen, 2014)

One work by 3-5 authors Bradley, Ramirez, Soo and Mitchell (2015)

Bradley et al. (2015) (Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, & Michell, 2015)

(Bradley et al., 2015)

One work by 6-7 authors Jones et al. (2016) Jones et al. (2016) (Jones et al., 2016) (Jones et al., 2016)

One work by 8+ authors Ahamad et al. (2015) Ahamad et al. (2015) (Ahamad et al., 2015) (Ahamad et al., 2015)

Groups/Organisation (readily identified through abbreviation) as author

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW, 2018)

AIHW (2018) (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [AIHW], 2018)

(AIHW, 2018)

Group/Organisation (no abbreviation) as authors

Diabetes Australia (2017) Diabetes Australia (2017) (Diabetes Australia, 2017) (Diabetes Australia, 2017)