Planning Learning Objectives

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blooms-taxonomy-revised.pdf

Center for Innovation in Teaching & Learning

2014

BLOOM’S TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES

Objectives state what we want our students to learn and be able to do. A statement of an objective contains a noun (type of

knowledge) and a verb (type of cognitive process using the knowledge).

General form of a learning objective: Students will be able to verb noun phrase.

Examples: Students will be able to design an experiment to test a hypothesis.

Students will be able to distinguish among confederal, federal, and unitary systems of government.

Students will be able to differentiate between rational and irrational numbers.

The Knowledge Dimension

Factual Conceptual Procedural Metacognitive

D E

F IN

E D

The basic elements

students must know to

be acquainted with a

discipline or solve

problems in it

The interrelationship

among the basic elements

within a larger structure

that enables them to

function together

How to do something,

methods of inquiry, and

criteria for using skills,

algorithms, techniques, and

methods

Knowledge of cognition in general

as well as awareness and knowledge

of one’s own cognition

S U

B T

Y P

E S

Terminology

Symbols

Specific details

Specific elements

Classification

Categories

Principles

Generalizations

Theories

Models

Skills

Algorithms

Techniques

Methods

Criteria for judgment

Strategies for learning

Knowledge about cognitive tasks

Self-knowledge

E X

A M

P L

E Works by an artist

Historical events

Components of a cell

Periods of geologic time

Models of government

Theory of evolution

Skills to paint a watercolor

Skills to analyze an injury

Methods of literary

criticism

Use of mnemonic strategies

Use of organizing techniques

Knowing one’s understanding of

and motivation for a task

Taken from Anderson and Krathwohl; A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of

Educational Objectives, New York: Longman, 2001,

Center for Innovation in Teaching & Learning

2014

The general form for writing a learning objective: Students will be able to verb noun phrase.

An example of a learning objective: Students will be able to write a learning objective that is clear and specific.

The Cognitive Dimension

Remember Understand Apply Analyze Evaluate Create

Retrieve relevant

knowledge from

long-term memory

Construct meaning by

connecting “new” to

“prior” knowledge

Use a procedure to

perform exercises

or solve problems

Break material into its

constituent parts and

relate parts to whole

Make judgments

based on criteria

or standards

Put elements

together to form

a coherent whole

V E

R B

S

Remember

Recognize

Identify

Recall

Retrieve

Understand Interpret

Clarify Paraphrase

Illustrate Classify

Categorize Summarize

Generalize Infer

Conclude Explain

Predict Compare

Contrast Map

Apply

Execute

Carry out

Use

Implement

Differentiate Analyze

Discriminate Focus

Distinguish Select

Organize Outline

Integrate

Structure

Attribute

Deconstruct

Evaluate

Check

Coordinate

Detect

Monitor

Test

Critique

Judge

Create

Generate

Hypothesize

Plan

Design

Produce

Construct

Q U

E S

T IO

N S

What happened

after ..

How many ..

What is ..

Who did ..

Where did .. occur?

How would you explain ..

Who do you think ..

Why did ..

How would you graph ..

Which .. corresponds to ..

What are examples of ..

How could you group ..

How would you

solve ..

How would you

do ..

What would you

say to ..

How would you

work a case of ..

What was the turning

point?

How is. .. similar to ..

Why did .. occur

What is needed to ..

What were some of the

motives for ..

Is there a better

solution to ..

What do you

think about ..

and why?

Do you think .. is

a good thing

and why?

What are possible

solutions to ..

How would you

design an ..

What would

happen if ..

How many ways

can you ..

A C

T IV

IT IE

S

Make a list

showing ..

Make a time line

Make a chart

showing ..

Write a summary of ..

Prepare a flow chart of ..

Write an explanation of ..

Make a taxonomy of ..

Draw a map/model of ..

Draw a graph of ..

Write possible outcomes of

Retell an event

Solve a problem

Write a response

to a case study

Perform a lab

experiment

Write a biography

Make a map showing

interrelationships

Write an analysis of ..

Write an essay

examining bias in ..

Construct a chart to

organize related data

Conduct a debate

(or a mock trial)

Write a critique

Prepare a case

Write an opinion

piece

Design an

experiment

Create a new

product

Plan a marketing

campaign

Create art

Design a building