Module 4SLP-CLAS Standards


Running head:


Jaydin Davis

Module 3 SLP: Cultural Empowerment

Trident University International

BHS414 Cross-Cultural Health Perspectives 

November 8, 2018


Obesity, also referred to as obesity hypoventilation syndrome is a condition in which severely obese people develop complications in their respiratory system making them develop difficulty inhaling enough oxygen rapidly enough to sustain the body mechanisms, leading to oxygen debt in the blood and as a result higher accumulation of carbon (IV) oxide in the bloodstream (Shetty, & Parthasarathy, 2015). Majority of people suffering from this condition frequently experience obstructive sleep; a condition known as apnoea, characterised by difficulty in breathing. In the United States of America, this condition is commonly found among the African American population alongside other minority groups.

The root cause of this condition among the African Americans is embedded in their cultural inclinations, dietary adaptations and behavioural factors such as low levels of education as well as the lack of health cover and insurance (Flegal et al., 2016). It is also imperative to note that African Americans follow up a diet that is culturally oriented to spicy food, a lot of fat and cholesterol and lack of physical exercise, life events and mental disorders such as depression; which are all predisposing conditions to hypoventilation syndrome. This paper explores the relationships and expectations of the PEN-3 model factors for African Americans.

Relationship and Expectation

For the successful application of cultural empowerment using the PEN-3 model in this case, a candid assessment of the ecological and social inclinations has to be done. This is because it has the potential of affecting the functioning of a society (Flegal et al., 2016). For positive results, the program should delve in the provision of education as well as quality training to inculcate the concept of interventions and utilization available services to remedy the situation. To address relationships and expectations the factors of the PEN-3 model are analysed asunder.


Perceptions refer to the general way in which a particular community, society or a group of people regards, understands, or interprets something. For instance, the view on perfect weight is essentially a cultural thing. It thus implies weight loss or gain is affected by social and societal beliefs, which in turn affect the health conditions of the people. Such societal and cultural inclinations affect the health concerns geared towards reducing the obesity epidemic among the African Americans and other minority groups in the U.S.A. It is imperative to note that African American women typically prefer fat bodies for their children. They consider it a sign of good health. This perception ties light body with being impoverished and susceptibility to diseases. Such cultural perceptions are unrealistic and may predispose children of African Americans to obesity (Bulbul et al 2014).


These are measures that are put in place to help overcome the side effects caused by obesity. Such factors include but not limited to cultural identities such as the rapport between the provider and the patient that transcends to effective communication and avid commitment to the prescription made by the provider (Bulbul et al 2014). Provider-patient communication is essential in solving this condition since they provide patients with prescriptions that can help in recovery and rapid weight loss. It is imperative to note that these prescriptive measures are meant to help individuals to make informed decisions on their lifestyles. Another critical enabler is having access to points of care. African Americans are susceptible to this condition since most of them live in suburbs where quality healthcare facilities are limited. Besides, most of them are immigrants without proper documentation which affects their ability to acquire proper insurance covers.


Nurturers are the sources of information or pieces of advice regarding a particular problem. Natures may be varied depending on their sources. For example, the African American population have the concept of unity in which all the members of the community or family structure take it upon them to take care of the affected. For instance, in the case a family member is suffering from a condition like obesity, the immediate family members take the initiative to seek medication to their patients. Besides, African Americans also have strong religious beliefs that make them follow the teachings and counsels of their spiritual leaders (Shetty, & Parthasarathy, 2015).


Bulbul, Y., et al. (2014). Frequency and predictors of obesity hypoventilation in hospitalized patients at a tertiary health care institution. Ann Thorac Medicine Vol. 9(2):87–91.

Flegal, K. M., et al. (2016). Trends in obesity among adults in the United States, 2005 to 2014. Jama315(21), 2284-2291.

 Shetty, S., & Parthasarathy, S., (2015). Obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Genetics in medicine. Vol. 4 (1), 42-45.