Disseminating Results and Advancement of the Profession

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Evaluation Plan

Name

University

Class

Date

Evaluation Plan

Evaluation Method

Evaluation can be defined as the methods that are utilized to determine the effectiveness of a program or service that is required and likely to be used, whether it is conducted as planned, or whether it helps the purpose, objectives, and goals (Andrews et al., 2014). The main evaluation method that will be used to assess the performance and success of this breast cancer awareness program in the community of African American women in Baltimore County is the formative evaluation. The formative evaluation exercise will be undertaken with the purpose of assessing the strengths and weaknesses of materials, or campaign strategies before implementation. Thus, part of the activities of the valuation will include pretesting. The evaluation will allow for the needed corrections before the full effort goes forward. Its main objective will be to increase the likelihood for program success before the communication activity begins. The procedures and tasks involved in implementing the program will also be examined. This form of evaluation will also explore the administrative and organizational elements of the program (Moore et al., 2014). The formative evaluation exercise will begin with the assessment of the needs of the cancer awareness program. The evaluation process will take place throughout the programming processes.

Formative evaluation will be ongoing and will offer information to the planning and implementation team. The primary purpose of this type of assessment will be to strengthen or improve the program being assessed and to determine the quality of its implementation. This medium will give room for the improvement of the program while the activities are in progress. The health promotion program will utilize the formative evaluation to understand the perspectives in which the interventions will take place and the creation of consensus on goals (Tolma et al., 2014). This medium will make it possible to effectively evaluate the participants' responses towards the program and improve it.

Furthermore, the formative evaluation will provide insights into the specific behaviors of concern and the causes of such behaviors concerning the breast cancer awareness among African American women. In so doing, the program implementers will effectively identify the community attitudes that can inhibit or promote the program goals. Part of the evaluation activities will entail identification of resources that are available to the program. Thus, the formative evaluation will be critical to improving the relevance, sustainability, as well as the efficacy of the community-based breast cancer awareness program.

Evaluation Theory

This cancer awareness program will be guided by the theoretical concepts of the social cognitive theory. According to this theory, people’s perception of their capacity to undertake an activity, and their anticipations that the recommended course of action will yield desired outcomes are significant indicators of performance. The theory also postulates that behavioral change or modifications and outcome of developing individual goals that are founded on the premise of self-efficacy expectations related to the outcomes of engagements in the recommended behaviors (Hodges & Videto, 2011). Indeed, if an individual holds the view that they can perform a behavior and perceive that the behavior will result in desired outcomes, the individual can undertake the behavior.

Self-efficacy will be utilized to determine people’s points of view regarding their capacity to evaluate, plan, and undertake the recommended behaviors. This medium will be premised on the acknowledgment of the fact that if people are to attempt a behavior, they need first to trust that they have the required capabilities to be involved in the recommended behavior (Phillips & McAuley, 2013). On the other hand, if people do not believe that they have the capacity for undertaking the recommended course of action, they will be deprived of the incentives to do that. This medium happens even in situations in which they essentially are able. In light of the above mentioned, people who have the conviction that they can achieve something, usually really can. On the other hand, those who do not believe that they can embrace a certain course of action do not often pursue it.

Another social cognitive theoretical concept that will be utilized is outcome expectation. As soon as the target population agrees to embrace the recommended behaviors, the goal should shift toward encouraging them to maintain this behavior. Thus, outcome expectations form a significant aspect of the self-efficacy construct and are relevant to the breast cancer awareness initiative (Adams et al., 2017). For instance, outcomes expectation can be evaluated regarding the capacity of the African American women to allocate a considerable fraction of their financial resources to seek healthy diets. Generally, an individual is more likely to maintain a behavior when the behavior results in the coveted results. This medium is especially true if they have perceived positive expectations on the importance of the recommended course of action (Hodges & Videto, 2011).

The concepts of this theoretical model will be critical in understanding the behavioral tendencies of the target group. Thus, the program implementation team will be able to plan interventions, which are geared toward changing them effectively. For instance, the concept of self-efficacy will be a widely explored psychosocial construct in cancer awareness programs (Fertman, 2016). For instance, going for cancer screening is one of the trait-specific examples of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy plays a crucial role in transforming the behavioral tendencies of the target audience since it acts as a motivator of healthy practices, deeply founded on the core idea that one can generate desired effects through one's actions (Roskos-Ewoldsen & Monahan, 2009). Unless people believe they can realize the desired changes through their efforts, there will be minimal incentives to put in that effort. Therefore, awareness of this model of behavioral changes will be instrumental in raising awareness of the target audience and making them understand the counter positioned factors from their points of view relating to specific behavioral changes (Rogers et al., 2005). Awareness programming will be adjusted within the theory as a vehicle for communicating the dynamics of the potential change, as well as an important instrument for unbalancing restraining and supportive forces at the level of personal decision making (Kettner, Moroney & Martin, 2017).

Performance Measurement, Monitoring, and Evaluation Timeline

Performance Measuring, monitoring, and Evaluation Indicator

Description of the Process

From

To

1

Participation Rate

Determining the percentage of women who have a screening mammogram within thirty days as a proportion of African American women. For the cancer awareness campaign to minimize mortality among African Americans, they must be encouraged to take part in the initiative in adequate numbers.

1st February 2019

28th February 2019

2

Retention Rate

Examining the estimated figure of women who have decided to return for screening within 30 days, expressed as a percentage. The maximum benefits of the screening exercise are attained through regular participation in the screening initiative.

1st March 2019

30th March 2019

3

Annual Screening Rate

Calculating the estimated percentage of women who have returned for screening exercise within the next year (12 months). The optimal gains made from the screening process will be attained through continuous involvements of black women in the screening initiative. Nonetheless, the participants may be recalled on a yearly basis as a result of the increased risk of breast cancer. This medium will be based on patient or screening history.

1st April 2019

1st April 2020

4

Abnormal Call Rate

This monitoring and assessment process will seek to determine the percentage mammograms that will be identified as abnormal in the screening exercise. The abnormal call rate will serve as an important indicator of the quality of the mammography imaging and interpretation. It can also be crucial in the context of positive predictive values, cancer detection rate, as well as post screen cancer rate.

1st April 2019

30th April 2019

Evaluation Plan

Goals and Objectives

The main goal of this plan is to determine the degree to which the program completion process adheres to the overall purpose of the cancer awareness initiative among African American women. Thus, one of the plan’s objectives includes increasing the level of engagement with African American women to reduce breast cancer among its population. Moreover, the evaluation plan aims at determining the population of Black women or target audiences who are involved and comparing them to the actual figure that was identified as the main target to be realized.

Identification of the Target Population

The program will target African American women in the United States. In particular, a total of 2000 women will be targeted for the breast cancer awareness initiative. This population will be sampled from Baltimore County Maryland, in the United States. The outcomes of this study will inform evidence-based practices regarding the prevention and response to breast cancer among minority groups in the United States.

Evaluation Plan

Task

Activities/ Data Required

Duration

1

Needs Assessment

Investigating the needs of the target audience regarding communication, health literacy needs, medication, and behavior change requirements. Thus, a requirements assessment will also require analysis of financial and human resource data needed for the launching of the initiative to succeed

30 Days

2

Developing the Project Plan

Designing the main goals, identifying relevant groups designing the intervention procedure, as well as identifying evaluation indicators

15 days

3

Evaluation Preview

Engaging stakeholders, clarification of the purpose of the assessment, identification of key questions, as well as the identification of resources

20 days

4

Evaluation Design

Specification of the assessment design, Identification of information gathering methodologies, as well as locating and developing data gathering instruments

25 days

5

Collecting Data

The main data types will include: cancer screening rates, participation rates, and level of turnout for the project

12 days

6

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Identifying the analysis tool and interpreting the evaluated study results and outcomes.

25 days

References

Adams, R. N., Mosher, C. E., Cohee, A. A., Stump, T. E., Monahan, P. O., Sledge, G. W., Jr, … Champion, V. L. (2017). Avoidant coping and self-efficacy mediate relationships between perceived social constraints and symptoms among long-term breast cancer survivors. Psycho-Oncology, 26(7), 982–990. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1002/pon.4119.

Andrews, M. L., Sanchez, V., Carrillo, C., Allen-Ananins, B., & Cruz, Y. B. (2014). Using a participatory evaluation design to create an online data collection and monitoring system for New Mexico's Community Health Councils. Evaluation and program planning42, 32-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2013.09.003.

Fertman, C. I. (2016). Health promotion programs: from theory to practice. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Hodges, B. C., & Videto, D. M. (2011). Assessment and planning in health programs (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Kettner, P. M., Moroney, R. M., & Martin, L. L. (2017). Designing and managing programs: An effectiveness-based approach (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Moore, H. K., Preussler, J., Denzen, E. M., Payton, T. J., Thao, V., Murphy, E. A., & Harwood, E. (2014). Designing and operationalizing a customized internal evaluation model for cancer treatment support programs. Journal of Cancer Education29(3), 463-472. Doi: 10.1007/s13187-014-0644-8

Phillips, S. M., & McAuley, E. (2013). Social cognitive influences on physical activity participation in long‐term breast cancer survivors. Psycho‐Oncology22(4), 783-791. https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.3074

Rogers LQ, Shah P, Dunnington G, Greive A, Shanmugham A, Dawson B, & Courneya KS. (2005). Social cognitive theory and physical activity during breast cancer treatment. Oncology Nursing Forum32(4), 807–815. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1188/05.ONF.807-815

Tolma, E. L., Stoner, J. A., Thomas, C., Engelman, K., Li, J., Dichkov, A., & Neely, N. (2019). Conducting a formative evaluation of an intervention promoting mammography screening in an American Indian Community: The Native Women’s Health Project. American Journal of Health Education50(1), 52–65. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1080/19325037.2018.1552216

Roskos-Ewoldsen, D. R., & Monahan, J. L. (Eds.). (2009). Communication and social cognition:

Theories and methods. London: Routledge.