Disseminating Results and Advancement of the Profession

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Program Design Elements

Name

University

Evidence Based Practice I: Assessment and Design

January 6, 2019

Program Design Elements

A program is only successful when it does not only achieve its objectives but also meets or exceeds stakeholders' expectations. It is the stakeholders who take responsibility of ensuring that a project reaches its goals. They remain accountable and sacrifice their time and resources for the good of the project. The success of a project depends on the involvement of all key stakeholders. Some of the familiar stakeholders include the community, the government, organizations, project managers and project sponsors (Kettner, Moroney & Martin, 2017). This paper discusses the importance of involving community members and organizations in the process of developing goals and objectives for a breast cancer awareness program among African American women.

Stakeholder Involvement

Importance of Involving Representatives in Goal Development

Involvement of representatives in goal development is a vital process that ensures the needs and expectations of the target population are catered for in the project (Hodges & Videto, 2011). There are various benefits associated with the involvement of representatives in the process of developing goals and objectives for the breast cancer awareness program for the selected population. It is undeniable that engaging the representatives can lead to the accommodation of local agendas within the local and national programs that aim at reducing breast cancer among African American women.

Consideration of the stakeholders’ needs and interests throughout the evaluation process is critical to productive development of interventions. Representatives can play a major role in the process of goal development of programs targeted at African American women who have breast cancer. Given that many campaigns and communication efforts are complex and sophisticated, stakeholders normally help in identifying the right objectives and ensuring that the outcomes are utilized to make a difference (Hodges & Videto, 2011). Stakeholders are much more likely to not only support the program assessment but also act on the program’s outcomes. Their involvement ensures that the suggestions and areas of differences are solved throughout the development process which in turn has the benefits of preventing conflicts or sabotage of the entire project.

Stakeholders Involved in the Program Planning Process

The community is one of the relevant stakeholders who will be involved in the program planning process. Soong et al. (2015) asserted that community members have the responsibility of identifying and evaluating problems that are healthcare oriented and solve them amicably. The efforts directed at solving such problems must also accommodate the possible barriers to the solutions. Breslau et al. (2015), in their support, indicated that the community solution to health problems start from the activities of the community members which implies that African-American women community can solve the problem if they are involved right from the initiation phase of the project to its implementation phase.

Other than the community, organizations will also be involved in the program planning process because organizations can provide technical, financial and mobilization assistance as well as media sponsorship for successful implementation of the breast cancer awareness program among African American women. Kettner, Moroney, and Martin (2017) asserted that organizations could financially sponsor the logistics and planning activities of a health awareness program. Media organizations can enhance program implementation by advertising the program, broadcasting radio and television jingles as well as granting interviews. Government agencies and local partners can provide technical and mobilization support. These initiatives can play significant roles in influencing African American women's perception of breast cancer awareness and prevention.

How Representatives can be Involved

Various strategies can be used to undertake stakeholder engagement for breast cancer programs among African American women. Some methods, according to O’Haire et al. (2012) include partnership, participation, consultation, and push communications as well as pull recommendations. Partnership programs entail establishing shared accountability and responsibility with stakeholders. Fawcett and Ellenbecker (2015) indicated that partnership involves close cooperation and information sharing. It should also require an engagement method in which part of the team is included in the delivery of tasks or with the responsibility for a specific area. This method is characterized by the establishment of limited ways of sharing responsibilities. In conference strategy, stakeholders participate, but team members are not accountable and cannot influence anything outside of consultation boundaries.

Push communication strategy is a one-way stakeholder engagement mechanism. When using push communications, organizations can spread a message across all stakeholder groups. This medium can alternatively be directed specific individuals with the utilization of communication channels like social media, emails, podcasts and broadcast media (O'Haire et al., 2012). Furthermore, they can use the nominal group technique. Stakeholders ideas and views can be obtained through a nominal approach that is free of interference and threats (O’Haire et al., 2012). The method enhances creativity and open sharing of information.

Every individual in the group has the freedom to share and learn new ideas. Stakeholders can choose the proposed ideas. This approach aims at promoting open communication of views and a listing of predetermined needs from stakeholders in non-hierarchical discussion forums (O’Haire et al., 2012). This form of engagement aims at structuring discussions when groups are having problems in reaching universal agreement on complex issues.

Program Design Elements

Program Mission, Goals, Objectives and Activities

Mission: To eliminate breast cancer as a significant health problem among African American women by preventing breast cancer and diminishing suffering from breast cancer through education and advocacy

Goals

Objectives

Activities

Tasks

Activities/Data Required

Duration

To promote awareness about breast cancer prevention

By 2020, increase to 75% proportion of African American women who understand the importance of annual clinical breast exams

Identify the population who underutilize clinical breast exams

Develop a media campaign to educate African American women about the benefits of early breast cancer detection

Train faith-based organization members on how to educate their congregations about the benefits of breast cancer screening

To increase early detection of breast cancer through screening

By 2020, increase to 60% the proportion of Black American women who have received a mammogram screening

Reduce depictions of breast cancer screening among African women

Advocate for increased clinical breast cancer examination and mammography among black American women

Devise targeted and effective mass media campaigns

To improve the quality of life of breast cancer survivors and their loved ones

By 2020, decrease breast cancer-related deaths for Black American women by 50%

Promote existing best practice programs

Develop guidelines for best practice programs that advocate for and promote healthy living

Market existing programs for breast cancer survivors

Program Gantt Chart

Activities

Month and Year of Plan

01/2019

02/2020

03/2020

04/2020

05/2020

Identify the population who underutilize clinical breast exams

Develop a media campaign to educate African American women about the benefits of early breast cancer detection

Train faith-based organization members on how to educate their congregations about the benefits of breast cancer screening

Reduce depictions of breast cancer screening among African American women

Advocate for increased clinical breast cancer examination and mammography among black American women

Devise targeted and effective mass media campaigns

Promote existing best practice programs

Develop guidelines for best practice programs that advocate for and promote healthy living

Market existing programs for breast cancer survivors

References

Breslau, E. S., Weiss, E. S., Williams, A., Burness, A., & Kepka, D. (2015). The implementation road: Engaging community partnerships in evidence-based cancer control interventions. Health Promotion Practice16(1), 46-54. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1177/1524839914528705

Fawcett, Jacqueline, and Carol Hall Ellenbecker. "A proposed conceptual model of nursing and population health." Nursing outlook 63, no. 3 (2015): 288-298. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2015.01.009.

Hodges, B. C., & Videto, D. M. (2011). Assessment and planning in health programs (2nd ed.).

Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

Kettner, P. M., Moroney, R. M., & Martin, L. L. (2017). Designing and managing programs: An effectiveness-based approach. (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

O’Haire, C., McPheeters, M., Nakamoto, E., LaBrant, L., Most, C., Lee, K., ... & Guise, J. M. (2011). Engaging stakeholders to identify and prioritize future research needs. Methods Future Research Needs Reports, No.4. Retrieved from https://ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mnh&AN=21977526&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Soong, C. S., Wang, M. P., Mui, M., Viswanath, K., Lam, T. H., & Chan, S. S. (2015). A “community fit” community-based participatory research program for family health, happiness, and harmony: Design and implementation. JMIR Research Protocols4(4). https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.2196/resprot.4369.