Gods and men

epherites II :horis Kmt.

c Dynasty XXX: Ca. 378—341 B.C.E. itive Kemetic Dynasty

:ctanebo I capital at Tjebnutjer (Sebennytos). Os

er of Macedon defeats the Persian Army at ti wasion and occupation of Kmt under Alexa

XX)I: 323—30 B.C.I. Ic Dy’ asty

I (S4r) ia beqomes the Kemetic administrative capit: (Famius African Scholar-Priest) writes a Hist he di.’ides the Kemetic royal families into d 11 (Phladelphus) opens ports at Arsinoe, My ‘ian Tvuseum and Library founded. nes (Celebrated African Scholar and the First y charts the earth’s circjmference and writes

III (Euergetes) [V (Phulopator) tta Stone (A bilingual V (Epiphanes) VI (Philometor) VII (Neos Philopator) Viii (Euergetes II) LX (Soter II) (Alexander I)

U (Alexander II) ‘set and Na-nefer-ka-ptah and Khaemwaset a

(11 (Neos Dionysos) VII commits suicide. Caesar claims Kmt as a province of the Rom

e Battle of Issus. der of Macedon in

ry ofEg)’pt (Aegvptia ‘nasties. s Hormos and Bereni

Librarian at Alexandi e Canon of the Kings

ctanebo II defeated by Persians under Ataxerxes Ill in 343 B.C.E.

Egypt Rev lied

22

a)

e.

a) of

E.

d his son Si-Osiri wiit

rn Empire in 30 B.C.L

I.

decree of Ptolemy IV)Iinscribed in 196 B.C

OF GODS AND MEN: EGYPT’S OLD KINGDOM

Wayne B. Chandler

And, I say unto you, that through the inspirational writings of him who is my word unto the nations, shot! tlte land of Khem be caused to give forth those secrets to mankind which 1 shall cause to be hidden there . .

Osiris, The Book of Truth

In this chapter! hope to demonstrate that the origin of the civilization ofEgypt (Khem) was black African, specifically Ethiopian or Anti. In order to understand

the progression of events which I hope wilt lead us to the revision of Egypt’s

history, I wilt give an overview of archaeology in Egypt. In orderfor the reader

to fully appreciate the achievements of Egyptian civilization, I will summarize the notable accomplishments of the early Egyptians.

For centuries, countries too numerous to mention have competed for the right

to lay c)aim to Egypt, the birthplace of science, philosophy, art, and yes, the

very genesis of civilization as we know it. Those origins which have become

most popular over the centuries are India, Sumeria, Mesopotamia, and Arabia.

Ironically, with the advent of the archaeologist, the historical perspectives be

came even more confusing. For this pioneering school, trying to solve the ar

chaic mysteries of this culture became more a cause of frustration than a source

of adventure. Too often were archaeologists confronted with pieces of a puzzle

that did not seem to fit. In what finally became an historical frenzy to make sense

of data accumulated from temple, tomb, and terrain, archaeologists committed

the cardinal sin of sanding square pegs so they might fit into round holes.

Personal bias and racial prejudice prevented most of these scientists, many of

whom were great scholars, from seeing the obvious—that Egypt was born and

culturally nurtured from the very womb of Africa herself! In the words of Chiekh

Anta Diop, “. . . The history of Black Africa will remain suspended in air and

cannot be written correctly until African historians dare to connect it with the

history of Egypt.”2 The 1900’s ushered in a new era of archaeological exploration, for the first

time since the inception of Egyptology several historians began to paint a more

117I

an d hi st or ia n, w ro te of th es e ta bl et s: “U nt il w e ha ve m or e ev id en ce of a de fin ite

ch ar ac te ro n th e ge ne ra lf ac ts of Eg yp tia n hi st or y, an d a m or e ac cu ra te m ea ns fo r

fin di ng th e da te of th e st ar tin g po in to fE gy pt ia n ci vi liz at io n, w e sh al lh av e to be

co nt en tw ith

a sy st em

of ch ro no lo gy

w hi ch co nt ai ns se ve ra l ga ps an d a se rie s of

m in im um

da te s fo r th e gr ea te r nu m be r of th e re ig ns of th e ki ng s, fo r th e be gi n-

fli ng of w hi ch

an ex ac t da te ca nn ot be as si gn ed .” 3

Eg yp io lo gi st R og er M oo re y po in ts ou th is di ff ic ul ty

in de vi sin g Eg yp t’s ch ro

no lo gy . “E ls ew he re in W es te rn A sia

pr eh is to ric

ch ro no lo gy

is la rg el y ba se d on

th e an al ys is of th e la ye rs of de br is fro m su cc es si ve

se ttl em en ts in on e pl ac e

(s tra tig ra ph y) w hi ch ha ve fo rm ed

a m ou nd

or te ll. Th es e ar e vi rtu al ly ab se nt in

Eg yp t.” 4 H en ce th e em ph as is on ta bl et s an d ru le r ch ro no lo gy . Tr ad iti on al ly , th e

ke y to es ta bl is hi ng

th e ap pr ox im at e ag e of Eg yp t ha s be en

to re co ns tru ct th e

ch ro no lo gy

of he r ki ng s. H ow ev er , th is ha s pr ov ed

to be

a fr us tra tin g an d

im po ss ib le ta sk . Th e m os t co m pl et e lis t of ki ng s kn ow n ap pe ar ed

in th e Ro ya l

Pa py ru s of Tu rin , w hi ch

as si gn ed

in or de r of dy na st y th e na m es of ov er

13 0

ki ng s. U nf or tu na te ly , w he n it w as sh ip pe d to Tu rin

in th e ea rly

ni ne te en th

ce nt ur y,

it di si nt eg ra te d in to th ou sa nd s of tin y pi ec es . A re co ns tru ct io n w as

at te m pt ed

in 18 26

by a lin gu is t na m ed Se yf fa rth , bu t hi s kn ow le dg e of hi er at ic

ch ar ac te rs w as ve ry lim ite d an d hi s ef fo rts ha ve be en de em ed w or th le ss .C ur re nt

op in io n m ai nt ai ns th at th e m os ti m po rta nt sin gl e do cu m en to fa ll ha s be en gi ve n

to us by th e Eg yp tia n Pr ie st M an et ho , w hi ch en co m pa ss es bo th pr eh is to ry an d

th e dy na st ic pe rio d. In it, M an et ho na m ed ov er a hu nd re d ki ng s an d di vi de d th em

in to th irt y dy na st ie s; th is sy st em

is sti ll em pl oy ed to th is da y. Th e m ai n dr aw ba ck

of th is ch ro no lo gy

is th at it ha s co m e do w n to us by

w or d of m ou th . Th e tw o

m os t co m pl et e ve rs io ns of hi s lis t ar e th os e qu ot ed

by Ju liu s A fr ic an us an d by

Eu se bi us . M uc h to ou r de sp ai r th es e tw o lis ts di ff er

in th e ar ra ng em en t of th e

dy na sti es , th e le ng th s of th e re ig ns

of th e ki ng s an d in th e nu m be r of ki ng s

as sig ne d to th e di ff er en t dy na st ie s. A cc or di ng

to Ju liu s A fr ic an us , 56 1 ki ng s

re ig ne d fo r ap pr ox im at el y 5, 52 4 ye ar s in to ta l. Eu se bi us , on

th e ot he r ha nd ,

sta te s 36 1 ki ng s ru le d in 4, 78 0 ye ar s. B ud ge sta te s th at of th e tw o ve rs io ns Ju liu s

A fri ca nu s is “c le ar ly th e m or e ac cu ra te of th e tw o” .T he bi tin g iro ny

in all of th is

is th at m an y of ou r to p sc ho la rs in th e fie ld fe el th at M an et ho ’s w or k as ha nd ed

do wn

to us

is sh or t of us el es s, ye tM

an et ho

‘s sc he m e of th irt y dy na sti es

is sti ll

e,n pl oy ed !

Th is pr ob le m of ch ro no lo gy

is fu rth er co m po un de d by

th e pr es en ce of tw o

i m aj or er as kn ow n as Eg yp t’s

‘‘d ar k er as ”. Th es e pe rio ds ex ist ed on ei th er sid e of

th e M id dl e K in gd om

an d ar e tra di tio na lly

ca lle d th e fir st an d se co nd In te rm e

di at e Pe rio ds . Ja m es H en ry B re as te d, fa m ed Eg yp tio gi st an d hi st or ia n, sa ys of

th es e pe rio ds : “t t w as a pe rio d of su ch w ea kn es s an d di so rg an iz at io n th at ne ith er

ki ng no r no bl e w as ab le to er ec t m on um en ta l w or ks w hi ch m ig ht ha ve su rv iv ed

to tel l us so m et hi ng of th e tim e. H ow

lo ng

th is un ha pp y co nd iti on

m ay ha ve

co nt in ue d it is no w qu ite im po ss ib le to de te rm in e. ”5 Th es e re m ar ks by Br ea ste d

C ha nd le r

1] 9

cc ur at e ac co un t of Eg yp t’s hi st or ic al re co r

ai nt ed pe rc ep tio ns w hi ch w er e ch ar ac te ris tic

rs w ith st oo d a ba rr ag e of ve he m en t cr iti ci ,

vi th bl ac k A fr ic a. Th e de ba te s th at w er e w ag

w o fa ct io ns at tra ct ed

th e at te nt io n of th e fe

es id in g in th e U .S . W ith fre sh hi st or ic al pe rs j

). I- ou st on , W .E .3 . D uB oi s, an d J.A . R of

at is tn ), in iti at ed

a vi itu al re vi si on of bl ac k

As 1 E gy pt ol og y fo rg ed ah ea d in to th e m id -I

ie ld ’ le ad in g sc ho la rs w as th at Eg yp t’s or ig i

n ab un da nc e of ne w in fo rm at io n w hi ch re

io ns , th ei r m in ds re m ai ne d he rm et ic al ly se al

te s t4 th e pr es en t da y. To da y, as on e ex am in

m e ci an no t he lp bu t se e th e fu nd am en ta l ii

vh ic lj ab ou nd

in th is fie ld . It is un fo rtu na te

io n rg ar di ng

Eg yp t is lb ia se d, ve ry co ns er va

4a ga in e pr in te d a re ve al in g ar tic le on

th e

va s as ke d ab ou t th e th ou sa nd s of ar tif ac ts ho

na tte r- of -f ac tly

no te d th at th ey ha d co lle ct ed

ite ra lly

re w rit e hi st or y. A s st ud en ts of Eg yp ti

;ta nd in g at a hi st or ic al cr os s- ro ad : on e ro ad

‘o lu te d,

a ro ad tu rn ed

in to

a de ad -e nd

by a

)r es en t or ou r fu tu re ; th e ot he r ro ad w id e op e

ie w pe rs pe ct iv es an d di sc ov er ie s.

ta te m en t of Pu rp os e

In th e ne xt se ve ra l pa ge s w e w ill ex am in e

ew pe rs pe ct iv es . W e w il] co ns id er th e co rr e

)r ig in of Eg yp t, an d th e id en tit y of th e fir st E

ne n w ho liv ed be fo re th e fir st dy na st y, w ho

h vh o be ca m e le ge nd s. Th ei r ac hi ev em en ts in

oi nt s of di sc us si on . Fi na lly , w e w ill ex pl or e

[. T he

C hr on ol og y of Eg yp t

Th e ch ro no lo gy of th ei “O ld K in gd om ” is by

‘e ri od s of Eg yp t. H ow

ol d is it re al ly ? Th e

ci is po sa al l ha ve ce rta in an d de fin ite lim ita tio n:

a vi ab le ch ro no lo gy . Th e m os t im po rta nt of

K ar na kl th e Ta bl et of A by do s, th e Ta bl e of Sa q

:h ro no lg y of th e Eg yp tia n Pr ie st , M an et ho .

g y p

Re vi sit ed

Le av in g be hi nd

th e;

th e ra ci al ly

of th e l8 00 ’s , th es e e id ite ex pl or

m as th ey da re d to c nn ec t Eg yp t

‘U in th e ea rly

19 00 ’s

ët w ee n th es e

/ ou ts ta nd in g bl ac k h st or ia ns

th en

ec tiv es , i nd iv id ua ls su

h as D n; sjl ja

er s (th e fa th er of an t op ho to jo ur

hi st or y th e w or ld ov e

90 0’ s, th e ge ne ra l co n en su s of the

w as sti ll Eu ro -A sj at j

.E ve n wi th

ea te dl y co nt ra di ct ed

he ir C O fl V iC

d. Th is sta te of co nf ts io n co nt in

s th e cu rr en t sta te of Eg yp to lo gy

zo ns is te nc ie s an d pr co un d vo id s

ta t m os t of th e av ai la le in fo rm a

iv e, an d in su ff ic ie nt .

19 84 Ge o

rit is h M us eu m . W he ti th e cu ra to r

se d in th e m us eu m ’s as em en t he

en ou gh m at er ia l ov er th e ye ar s to

fl hi st or y, w e no w fii td ou rs el ve s

ie ll tra ve le d, a1 th ou g ve ry co n

in d- se t th at ha s no pl ac e in ou r

w ith

th e ex hi la ra tjn

pr om is e of

rit ic al is su es

in th e Ii h t of th es e

:t ch ro no lo gy

of E gy t, th e tru e

yp tia ns . W e w ill al so ]o ok

at th e

te r be ca m e go ds , an d m en af te r,

he ar ts an d sc ie nc es vi ll all

be he cr ea tio n of th e py im id s.

fa rt he m os t p er pl ex i g of all

th e

)c um en ts w hi ch

w e la ve

at ou r

w hi ch ha m pe r th e es tib ]is hm en t

he se do cu m en ts ar e tIe

Ta bl et of

ar a, th e Pa py ru s of T ui n an d th e

al lis B ud ge , no te d E yp to lo gj st

12 0

Eg yp t R ev isi ted

Ch an dl er

12 1

in di ca te th e po ss ib ili ty th at th es e pe rio ds m ay ha ve sp an ne d se ve ra l ce nt ur ie s. If

th is is in de ed th e ca se it w ou ld pu sh th e Py ra m id A ge an d th e ag e of Eg yp tp ro pe r

in to a m or e re m ot e an tiq ui ty .

C he ik h A nt a D io p, eg yp to lo gi st , lin gu is t, ph ys ic is t, an d hi st or ia n, al lo w s

10 ,0 00 ye ar s fo r th e cy cl e of Eg yp tia n ci vi liz at io n. H is lo gi c is pu re an d si m pl e

an d ha rd to re fu te . Th e Eg yp tia n ca le nd ar w as ba se d on

th e cy cl e of th e st at

Si riu s w ho se ris e co in ci de s w ith th e su n ev er y 1, 46 1 ye ar s. N ow

an y as tro no m er

Jw ill ve rif y th e fa ct th at it ta ke s th ou sa nd s of ye ar s to stu dy th e st el la r m ov em en t

J of ce le st ia l bo di es be fo re on e m ay ac qu ire

in fo rm at io n ac cu ra te en ou gh

to de

ve lo pe

a ca le nd ar . D r. D io p sa ys , an d Iq uo te : “T hi s ci vi liz at io n ca lle d Eg yp tia n

in ou r pe rio d de ve lo pe d fo r a lo ng

tim e in its ea rly

cr ad le

. .

. Th is cy cl e of

ci vi liz at io n, th e lo ng es t in hi st or y, pr es um ab ly la ste d 10 ,0 00

ye ar s. Th is is a

re as on ab le co m pr om is e be tw ee n th e lo ng ch ro no lo gy

(b as ed

on da ta pr ov id ed

by M an et ho

[w hi ch ] pl ac es th e be gi nn in g at 17 ,0 00 B .C .) an d th e sh or t

‘N hr on o1 og y [3 10 0 B .C .] of th e m od er ns — fo r th e ta tte r ar e ob lig ed to ad m it th at

, ly 42 45 B .C . t he Eg yp tia ns ha d al re ad y in ve nt ed th e ca le nd ar (w hi ch ne ce ss ar ily

Je qu ir es th e pa ss ag es of th ou sa nd s of ye ar s) .” 6 Th us , if th e Eg yp tia ns ha d th e

ca le nd ar in 42 45 B .C . an d it to ok

th e pa ss ag e of se ve ra l th ou sa nd ye ar s to am as s

en ou gh

da ta to cr ea te it, th en

it is on ly ra tio na l th at w e ad he re to th e lo gi c of

Pr of es so r D io p. D io p go es on

to sa y, “T he of fic ia l da te , ad op te d un til no w fo r

no sp ec ia l re as on w av er s be tw ee n 31 00 B .C . an d 30 00 B .C . In ac tu al fa ct , th e

ch oi ce of 31 00 B .C . re su lts fro m no ne ce ss ity

bu t t ha to f s yn ch ro ni zi ng Eg yp tia n

\a nd

M es op ot am ia n ch ro no lo gy .” 7 C on tin ui ng , D io p go es on

to po in to ut , “T he

Z) \m ot iv at in g id ea

is to su cc ee d in ex pl ai ni ng

Eg yp t by M es op ot am ia , th at is,

by W es te rn A si a, th e or ig in al ha bi ta to fI nd o- Eu ro pe an s. Th e ch ro no lo gy of V ik to r

bh ri st ia n, w ho re lie s on K ug le r’ s as tro no m ic al ca lc ul at io ns ,d at es th e st ar to ft he

fir st U r dy na st y be tw ee n 26 00

an d 25 80 , [B .C ] w hi ch w ou ld th us al so be

th e

pe rio d of th e so -c al le d ‘ro ya l’ to m bs ”. 8 Th er ef or e th e fix ed da te of M es op ot a

m ia n ci vi liz at io n at 31 00 B .C . is in co rr ec ta nd pu rp os el y m is le ad in g. In es se nc e

w ha ti s be in g st at ed he re is th at th is in fo rm at io n im pl ie s a m uc h gr ea te ra nt iq ui ty

th an th e po or fe w th ou sa nd ye ar s ac co rd ed Eg yp t by th e w or ld ’s Eg yp to lo gi st s.

W ha t of th e Eg yp tia ns th em se lv es ? H ow

di d th ey pe rc ei ve

th ei r ow n ch ro

no lo gy ? W he n H er od ot us w as

in Eg yp t in th e fif th ce nt ur y B .C ., he w as in

fo rm ed of Eg yp t’s gr ea ta nt iq ui ty .T he “f at he r of H is to ry ” w as to ld th at th e fir st

m an to ru le Eg yp t w as M m , w ho

liv ed

so to ng

ag o th at Eg yp t w as sti ll un de r

w at er : “i n (M m ’s ) tim e th e w ho le co un try , ex ce pt th e di st ric t ar ou nd Th eb es ,

w as m ar sh ,n on e of th e La nd be lo w La ke M oe ris ,w as th en sh ow in g ab ov e w at er .

To th is pl ac e fro m th e se a [N ow ] is se ve n da ys pa ss ag e up th e riv er

La te r

So lo n, en ro ut e fro m G re ec e, ha pp en ed up on

an Eg yp tia n pr ie st of Sa is. Tr yi ng

to en ga ge hi m in an hi st or ic al de ba te th e pr ie st an sw er ed th us , “Y ou G re ek s ar e

no vi ce s in al l kn ow le dg e of an tiq ui ty . Yo u ar e ig no ra nt of w ha t pa ss ed

he re or

am on g yo ur se lv es

in th e da ys

of ol d. Th e hi st or y of ei gh t-t ho us an d ye ar s is

de po si te d in ou

sa cr ed bo ok s, bu t wc

te ll yo u w ha to tr fa th er s ha ve do ne f

tu tio ns , th ei r i4 vs , an d th ei r br ill ia n

od or us ’ so ur ce s.1 w hi ch co rr ob or at e th

m ig ra te in to Eg yp tw hi le so m e of it w

th is co un try w a or ig in al ly un de r w at

as it flo w ed fr m

Et hi op ia , ha d fin a

co nt in en t.”

Ti je re is am pl e ev id en ce

w hi le th e re st jf th e co nt in en t w as

Eg yp tia ns be ga

to bu ild

as th e w at el

H er od ot us , a w e ha ve al re ad y sa id

th is tim e, an d rc or de d hi s ow n co nc l

ga ve

m e th is aC ou nt of Eg yp t, bu t IT

th ey sa id

. .

. N w

it is m y be lie ft ha t

In su pp or t he nt ed

“I ha ve ob se rv e

pr oj ec ts in to th 9 se a be yo nd

th e co as t

hi lls an d no tic e ho w sa lt ex ud es fro r

ev en th e py ra m i

hi ll ab ov e M em

ne ig hb or in g co u

w ou ld ex pe ct of

Th ot h (H er m es ).

“t he w av es of

v M od er n sc ie n

G et zi ng er pr od u

.sh el ls at a ce rta in le ve l qu ite

ab ov e th e

e. Dr . R. Re nn et an A m er ic an ge ol og is t

ur at io n an d co m po si tio n of th e lo w la nd s

e se a on ce w as he d th e ba se of th e ro ck s

pr es en t ba se of w hi ch

is re ac he d by tle

io n se ve nt y or ei gh ty

fe et ab ov e th e

ca n as ce nd

to m uc h hi gh er an tiq ui ty an d

it ni ne -th ou sa nd ye ar s I m ea n th ei r in si

A cc or di ng

to d i

se of H er od ot us , th e Et hi op ia ns be ga n o

is sti ll un de rw at er : “T he y ev en al le ge th t

r, bu t th at th e N ile , dr ag gi ng

m uc h m td

ly fil le d it in an d m ad e it a pa rt of th e

th at th e M ed ite rr an ea n sti ll co ve re d Eg yp t

Ire ad y dr y, an d th at th e fir st of th e n& w

s re ce de d.

w as to ld th at th e fir st ru le r Mm

liv ed at

isi on : “1 no to nl y be lie ve

th e pe op le w lo

y ow n co nc lu si on s st ro ng ly su pp or t w ha t

gy pt w as or ig in al ly an ar m of th e

t2

I f or m ys el f th at Eg yp t at th e N ile

D el ta

in ei th er sid e;

Ih av e se en se a sh el ls on th e

th e so il to su ch

an ex te nt th at

it af fe ct s

ha t th e on ly hi lt w he re th er e is sa nd

is th e

of Eg yp t do es no t re se m bl e th at of th e

a, or ev en of Sy ria

. .

. bu ti sb la ck as on e

M or e ev id en ce co m es fro m th e bo ok s of

py ra m id s as st an di ng up on th e se a- sh or e,

le ss fu ry ag ai ns t its ba se .”

de nt w rit er s. A n ar ch ae ol og is t, D r. H .

hs of on e of th e sid es of th e G re at P yr

[s; Ih av e no tic ed to o,

hi s, an d th at th e so i

Itr y of A ra bi a, or Li bj

an al lu vi al so il

It de sc rib es on e of thi

hi ch da sh ed

in po w el

Li sts co nf irm

th es e a

:e d st ar tli ng ph ot og r

am id re ve al in g he

in cr us ta tio n of se a

pr es en t le ve l of he

ba se of th e str uc tu

su bs ta nt ia te s th i

of Eg yp t le av e n

on w hi ch

th e p

in un da tio ns

of M ed ite rr an ea n. ”

II . O rig in of E yp t

by sa yi ng “T he co nf i,

ro om

to do ub t th at

ra m id s

. .

. st an d; th e

th e N ile

at an

et ev a

5

qu es tio n of Eg yp t’s

ho w er e th e Eg yp tia n

‘s be gi nn in gs , w e fin i

D yn as ty . Th is fa ct h

en se di ct at es th at if I

or ig in at ed

el se w he re

fi rs t D yn as ty , un de r

A pa rt fro m

th qu es tio n as to

‘4 re vi ew in g Eg yp t

fro m th e ea rli es k

ag es . C om m on

za tio n m us t h a

w ha t w e ca ll th e

ch ro no lo gy , th er e re m ai ns

th e in tr ig ui n

an d fro m w he re di d th ey or ig in at e?

Ip I a n ad va nc ed ci vi liz at io n al re ad y in ta jt

.s pe rp le xe d hi st or ia ns do w n th ro ug h th

•g yp t be ga n fu lly

m at ur e, th en

its ci vi l,

“W e fin d w he n w e di sc ov er Eg yp t ii

M en es , th at it is at its ab so lu te ze ni th df

12 2

Eg yp tR ev isi ted

I C ha nd le r

12 3

cu ltu re in pa in tin g, sc ul pt ur e, ar ch ite ct ur e. Fr om

th is pe ak pe rio d, th e Eg yp tia n

cu ltu re st ea di ly de cl in es . It is ve ry m uc h as if th e Eg yp tia ns fo un d th em se lv es th e

in he rit or s of

a gr ea t re ad y- m ad e cu ltu re of w hi ch

th ey co ul d ta ke ad va nt ag e,

w hi ch

th ey

co ul d ut ili ze

an d ev en

to so m e de gr ee em ul at e, bu t w hi ch

th ey

th em se lv es di d no tc re at e

. .

. Th is ve ry st ro ng ly su gg es ts th at it dr ew

its gr ea t

ne ss fro m

a so ur ce hi gh er th an its el f

. “

Jn 19 62

a ne w di sc ov er y oc cu rr ed w hi ch sh ed so m e lig ht on

th is pu zz le . A n

ex ca va tio n te am

he ad ed

by K ei th C. Se el e, th en D ire ct or of th e U ni ve rs ity

of C hi ca go ’s O rie nt al In st itu te , ha d se t ou t to sa lv ag e an ci en t re m ai ns

in N ub ia

w hi ch w er e in da ng er of ris in g flo od w at er s. Th er e th ey fo un d th e bi rth pl ac e of

a ph ar ao ni c- ce nt er ed ci vi liz at io n se ve ra l ge ne ra tio ns ol de r th an th e fir st hi st or ic

Eg yp tia n dy na st y. Th er e in Q us tu l, N ub ia , pr eh is to ry

w as tra ns fo rm ed

in to

hi st or y, fo r it ha d pr ev io us ly be en be lie ve d th at ad va nc ed po lit ic al or ga ni za tio n

di d no t en te r N ub ia or an yw he re so ut h of Eg yp t fo r an ot he r 2, 50 0 ye ar s. Th is

di sc ov er y, al on g w ith

in fo rm at io n ex ca va te d fro m to m bs , pr ov ed th at Eg yp tia n

ci vi liz at io n an d cu ltu re ha d no t on ly or ig in at ed

in th e so ut h, bu t th at

in so m e

re m ot e pe rio d of an tiq ui ty th e in ha bi ta nt s of Eg yp t an d N ub ia w er e on e an d th e

sa m e. D io do ru s of Si ci ly in fo rm s us th at “t he Et hi op ia ns sa y th at th e Eg yp tia ns ar e

on e of th ei r co lo ni es w hi ch w as br ou gh t in to Eg yp tb y O si ris

. .

. Th ey ad d th at

fro m th em , as fro m th ei r au th or s an d an ce st or s, th e Eg yp tia ns ge t m os t of th ei r

la w s. It is fro m th em

th at th e Eg yp tia ns ha ve le ar ne d to ho no rk in gs an d go ds an d

bu ry th em

w ith

su ch po m p; sc ul pt ur e an d w rit in g w er e in ve nt ed

by th e E th io

pi an s. Th e Et hi op ia ns ci te ev id en ce th at th ey ar e m or e an ci en tt ha t t he Eg yp tia ns ,

bu t it is us el es s to re po rt th at he re .” ‘

\ A t th is ju nc tu re , w e sh ou ld ex pl or e m or e de ep ly in to th e na tu re of th e E th i

op ia ns

w ho em ig ra te d to Eg yp t. Fi rs t w e m us t cl ar ify

so m e te rm in ol og y. Th e

w or d “E th io pi an ” is G re ek , st em m in g fro m th e w or ds “a ith ei n” w hi ch m ea ns to

bu rn , an d “o ps ” w hi ch m ea ns fa ce . Th er ef or e th e te rm

bu rn t fa ce or Et hi op ia n

w as ap pl ie d ve ry br oa dl y to al l bl ac k pe op le s w ho

in ha bi te d A fr ic a an d A sia .

Th e bl ac ks of an ci en t Et hi op ia re fe rr ed

to th em se lv es as th e A nu . W he n O sir is

br ou gh t fo rth

th is ex od us ou to f E th io pi a in to E gy pt w e m us ts ur et y re m em be r

th at th e te rm

Eg yp t di d no t ex is t, fo r it to o is G re ek . Th ou gh

th e an ci en t

Eg yp tia ns ca lle d th ei r la nd K he m , K em it, or K m t, (w hi ch

m ea ns bl ac k in th ei r

la ng ua ge or la nd of th e bl ac ks ) ne ve r d id th os e bl ac ks of th e O ld K in gd om

re fr ai n

fr om

id en tif yi ng th em se lv es w ith

th e A nu .

‘ .

A bb e Em ile A m el in ea u (1 85 0- 19 16 ) is cr ed ite d w ith

th e di sc ov er y of th e A nu

;9 àç d th ei r co nt rib ut io n to Eg yp tia n ci vi liz at io n. 18

It w as A m el in ea u w ho de si g

n e d th e fir st bl ac k ra ce

to oc cu py

Eg yp t as th e A nu . H e fo llo w ed th ei r pa th

al 6n g th e N ile , an d re ve al ed th at th ey bu ilt th e ci tie s of Es ne h, Er m en t, Q ou ch ,

an d H el io po lis . A cc or di ng

to A m el in ea u, “A ll th os e ci tie s ha ve th e ch ar ac te ris tic

sy m bo l w hi ch se rv es

to de no te th e na m e A nu .”

9 C iti ng ev id en ce un co ve re d in

B as al t st at ue

of pr e- dy na st ic fig ur e

ad or ne d w ith

a fa sc be ar d, w hi ch la te r

be ca m e a ph ar ao n sy m bo l, an d a pe ni s

sh ea th . C ou rte sy

o W ay ne C ha nd le r an d

G ay ne !! C at he rin e

12 4

Eg yp tR ev isi te d

i C ha nd le r

12 5

Pr e- dy na st ic st at ue tte

of a w om an fr om

th e Te m pl e at H ie ra ko np ol is . Co ur te sy

of W ay ne C ha nd le r an d G ay ne ll C at he r

in e.

hi s ex ca va tio ç he co nt in ue s: “T he s

on a la rg e s le

al on g th e N ile , s

de fe ns iv e pu ro se s.

To th is pe op le

m os t an ci en t gy pt ia n bo ok s, Th e

am id s, co ns eq 1u en tly , all th e m yt hs

th e ph ilo so ph al sy st em s th en

kn ox

kn ew

th e cr at s ne ce ss ar y fo r an y

th os e tra de s rq ui re d. Th ey kn ew

h at te m pt s at w ti ng , fo r th e w ho le E

th e gr ea t H er rie s, an A nu

lik e O si r

Th e Bo ok of (i e D ea d an d in th e

al re ad y kn ew

th e pr in ci pa l ar ts ; it

to m bs at A by os , es pe ci al ly th e to

ha ve be en fo d be ar in g th e un m is t

iv or y, or th e l1 ttl e he ad of

a N ub ia n

th e sm al l w oo

en or iv or y re ce pt ac l1

O fc ou rs e, if th e Eg yp tia ns w er e

al so be bl ac k. A nc ie nt w rit er s as w

co nf irm

th is. Th e an ci en t te st im on i

w ith

th e dy na ic Eg yp tia ns an d re pr

hi st or ia ns , an 4 Eg yp to lo gi st s of th e

19 16 ) su m m ai liz es ho w th e w rit er s

“B y th e al m ot un an im ou s te st im on

N eg ro ra ce

w hi ch

fir st se ttl ed

in Et

co ur se of th e riv er , th ey

gr ad ua lly

Co un t C on st a tin

de V ol ne y w as

in w er e ch ar ac te ist ic du rin g hi s tim e.

ye ar

17 83

(th sla ve

tra de

w as

at i

A fri ca n ra ce l at w ou ld fo re ve r ch a

ha ve

a bl oa te d fa ce , pu ff ed

up ey es ,

at tri bu te

it to th e cl im at e, bu t w he n

I th e ke y to th e id dl e. O n se ei ng

th at

re m em be re d

t e re m ar ka bl e pa ss ag e

‘A s fo r m e,

I j Ug e th e C oi ch ia ns to

th em , th ey ar e bl ac k w ith

w oo le y h

tia ns w er e tru

N eg ro es of th e sa m e

th in k th at th is

ac e of bl ac k m en , to

is th e ve ry ra c

to w hi ch

w e ow e ou i

Ju st im ag in e.

in al ly , th at

it is in th t

gr ea te st fr ie nd

of lib er ty an d hu m ai

ro us sl av er y ai d qu es tio ne d w he th e

w hi te s! ”2 2 T h:

pr of ou nd

re ve la tio nA nu w er e ag ric u1 tu ra pe op le ,r ai si ng

c til e

Iu tti ng

th em se lv es

up in w al le d cit ies 1 fo r

w e ca n at tri bu te w ith ou t f ea r of er ro ri th e

oo k of Th e D ea d an d th e Te xt of th e P yr

rr el ig io us te ac hi ng s.

Iw ou ld ad d al m ot al l

‘n an d sti ll ca lle d Eg yp tia n. Th ey ev id en tly

iv ili za tio n an d w er e fa m ili ar w ith

th e t ol s

w to us e m et al s

. .

. Th ey m ad e th e ea r le st

yp tia n tra di tio n at tri bu te s th is ar t to Th

th , j

s, w ho

is ca lle d O ni an

in ch ap te r fif te e of

‘x ts of th e P ra m id s. C er ta in ly th e pe op le

ef t pr oo f of th is

in th e ar ch ite ct ur e of1 th e

b of O si ris , an d in th os e se pu lc he rs ob jc ts

ka bl e st am p of th ei ro ig in — su ch

as ca rv ed

gi rl fo un d in a to m b ne ar th at of O si ris , or

es in th e fo rm

of a fe lin e he ad

20

n u pe op le , lik e th e Et hi op ia ns , th ey w ou ld

ll as m od er n on es , led

of co ur se by D io p,

in cl ud e w rit er s w ho

w er e co nt em po ra ry

bs en t so m e of th e m os t re sp ec te d ex p] or er s,

la st 2, 00 0 ye ar s. G as to n M as pe ro (1 84 6-

f an tiq ui ty vi ew ed

th e an ci en t Eg yp tia ns .

y of an ci en t hi st or ia ns , th ey be lo ng ed

to a

hi op ia , on

th e M id dl e N ile : fo llo w in g th e

re ac he d th e se a

21 A no th er sc ho la r,

th ue d w ith

all th e ra ci al pr ej ud ic es w hi ch

Em ba rk in g up on

a so jo ur n to Eg yp t in th e

ts ze ni th ) he

m ad e a di sc ov er y ab ou t th e

ig e hi s ou tlo ok : “ .

. . all

[th e in ha bi ta nt s]

fla t no se , th ic k lip s;

. . I w as te m pt e to

vi si te d th e Sp hi nx , its ap pe ar an ce ga ve m e

he ad , ty pi ca lly

N eg ro

in all

its fe at ur e.

I w he re H er od ot us

[5 th ce nt ur y B .C .] sy s:

be a co lo ny of th e Eg yp tia ns be ca us e, lik e

ir. .

. .‘ In ot he r w or ds , th e an ci en t E gy p

ty pe

as all na tiv e- bo rn A fr ic an s

. .

. Ju st

lay ou r sla ve s an d th e ob je ct of ou r sc cr n,

ar ts , sc ie nc es an d ev en th e us e of sp ee h!

m id st of pe op le s w ho

ca ll th em se lv es he

1i ty th at on e ha s ap pr ov ed

th e m os t ba rb a

bl ac k m en

ha ve

th e sa m e in te lli ge nc e as

is all

th e m or e re m ar ka bl e fo r on e p rv i

_c :’_ ••_ _

12 6

Eg yp tR ev isi ted

ou sly

in fli ct ed w ith

th e vi ru s of ra ci sm . Fi na tly th is is al ls ub st an tia te d in th e tex t

‘A C om pa ra tiv e st ud y of R ac ia lA na ly si s” by B .K . C ha tte rje e an d G .D . K um ar .

Th ey co m pa re d th e m ea n va lu es of di ff er en t cr an ia l, fa ci al , na sa l, an d or bi ta l

m ea su rm en ts of sk ul ls re la te d to va rio us ar ea s an d pe rio ds of Eg yp tia n ci vi liz a

tio n. C ra ni um

m at er ia l w as an al yz ed fro m th e pr e- hi st or ic sit es of Eg yp tN aq ad a

II, Eg yp tB ad ar i, pl us N ub ia A rib a, an d w er e th en co m pa re d w ith sk ul ls fro m th e

Tw el fth

an d Th irt ee nt h D yn as tie s an d Sa qq ar a, (O ld K in gd om ). Th e ar ch ae ol

og is ts fo un d th at all of th es e sk ul ls in re sp ec t to “l on g he ad , br oa d fa ce , lo w

or bi t, an d br oa d na sa l ap er tu re ha ve

th e ch ar ac te ris tic

fe at ur es of th e N eg ro id

ty pe ”. 23

II I. T he M en B ef or e th e Fi rs t D yn as ty

“M yt hs ar e th in gs w hi ch ne ve r ha pp en

bu t al w av c ar e

— Sa lu sti us

In Eg yp tia n hi st or y O si ris

w as en sh rin ed

as a go d,

a le ge nd

or m yt h. if yo u

w ill . Bu ti n al la ct ua lit y he ex is te d as

a hi st or ic al fig ur e as di d M en es , an d m an y

of th e ot he r ki ng s of th e O ld K in gd om , w ho

fo un d th ei r w ay

to im m or ta lit y

th ro ug h de ifi ca tio n. Eg yp to lo gi st H ei nr ic h B ru gs ch no te s “F re qu en t m en tio n is

m ad e in th e ol d re co rd s of ro ya l go ds , as of re al pe rs on ag es . B es id es th e na m e

of th ei r dy na st y th ey ha ve

a se co nd

na m e of ho no r, an d, ju st lik e th e Ph ar ao hs ,

th ey be ar re sp ec tiv el y th e au th en tic tit le un de r w hi ch th e go d Te hu ti [T ho th i, th e

sa cr ed sc rib e of th e go ds , re gi st er ed ea ch of th em

in th e ‘B oo k of K in gs ,’ at th e

co m m an d of th e su n go d, Ra . Th ey

ha ve

th ei r in di vi du al hi st or y, w hi ch

th e

sc rib es w ro te do w n in th e te m pl e bo ok s; th ey m ar rie d ro ya l br id es , an d be ga t a

ve ry nu m er ou s po st er ity ”. 24

Th e pa rt O si ris

pl ay ed

in Eg yp tia n hi st or y is ob

sc ur e. O ut si de of w ha t le ge nd

ha s be qu ea th ed

us , w e kn ow

th at he w as pa rt of

a tri ad w hi ch in cl ud ed

hi s sp ou se Is is, an d so n H or us , al lo f w ho m w er e de ifi ed

du rin g a la te r pe rio d. A no th er em in en t fig ur e w ho

pl ay ed

a pr om in en t ro le

du rin g th is er a w as Th ot h, or H er m es as he w as kn ow n to th e G re ek s.

Eg yp t’s gr ea te st M as te rs ,O si ris , H er m es ,I sis , an d H or us all be lo ng ed

to “t he

ol d ra ce ”, th e bl ac k A nu .I tw as th ro ug h th es e so ve re ig n ru le rs th at th e ve ry co re

of Eg yp tia n ph ilo so ph y an d sc ie nc e (in

all of its as pe ct s) w as cr ea te d an d m ai n

ta in ed . Ea ch of th es e gr ea ti nd iv id ua ls pl ay ed

a pa rti cu la rr ol e in no to nl y Eg yp t’s

hi st or y, bu tt he hi st or ie s of m an y na tio ns w hi ch w er e to la te r ar is e. W e ha ve

no t

th e tim e or sp ac e to in cl ud e th e hi st or y an d le ge nd s w hi ch

ac co m pa ny

th es e

de iti es , bu t a br ie f ov er vi ew

is ap pr op ria te .

O nc e ag ai n w e m us tt ur n to A m el in ea u fo r it w as he th at di sc ov er ed th e to m b

\o f O si ris

at A by do s. B ec au se of th is di sc ov er y O si ris

co ul d no lo ng er be co n

\s id er ed

a m yt hi ca l he ro . Th e m ag ni tu de of th is di sc ov er y ca nn ot

be st re ss ed

Pr ot o- dy na sti c lif e- ze d fig ur e of O sir is, fr m A by do s. C ou rte sy of W ay ne C ha nd le r

no ug h. A no th er in cr ed ib le fin d m ay al so be at tri bu te d to A m el in ea u, th e di s-

an d G ay ne t! C at he ri ze .

C

B

I

C.

13 0

Eg yp t R ev is ite d

C ha nd le r

13 1

co ve ry of

th e ha d of O si ris . Fo un d

A m el in ea u sa ys

“I m ys el f ha ve

fo ui

ex ca va tio ns w hi h cu lm in at ed

in th e

sh rin e w he re th e sk ul lo ft he go d Ib el i

th e sc ie nt is tt ha ti e w as he so ug ht to v

in th e M us eu m

pf Le id en , he fo un d ft

w as pr es er ve d all A by do s, a pl ac e de si

of A by do s” .

A m el in ea u m

m ay ha ve fo un d

I co nf irm at io n.

TI Eu ge ne R ev ill ou

Re vi lfo ur ve rif ie

he ad as be in g lo

la nc e. In br ie f,

an d im m or ta lit y

cr ea tio n, be ca m

es ta bl is he d a co

em ba rk ed on jo

sp ou se Is is ni le

Se th , as he

w as

O sir is. H av in g l

W he n is is le ar n

th e ro ya lc h il d r

fo ug ht Se th se ve

fa th er , m ot he r,

kn ow n of th em

Eg yp t. so n of Sá

an d pe rs on ifi ed

th e la nd of K he t

M ad on na . H or u

is ca lle d th e “l o’

of th e w or ld ,b ei

of hi s fa th er , th

tio ns . By

hi m th

Th ot h, Th ot ,

pe rs on ag e of

th m at io n ab ou t hi s

of Eg yp t ha ve

h co nc is e.

H e w a

m ea ns “t he th rl

M A ST ER

of M

in a ja r in th e ne cr op ol is of A by do s,

id ot he r sh rin es du rin g th e pr el im in ar y

ro ya l ne cr op ol is , be fo re un ea rth in g th e

ve d Ih ad fo un d w as pr es er ve d. ”2 5 B ei ng

rif y hi s fin di ng . R ef er rin g to th e pa py ru s

at it ex pr es sl y st at ed th at th e go d’ s he ad

na te d on th e pa py ru s as “t he ne cr op ot is

lm ed

w ith

ex ci te m en t. Th e fa ct th at he

iu m bi ng . St ill un ce rta in he so ug ht fu rth er

n in de m ot ic so

he co nf er re d w ith

on e

th e fie ld of an ci en tl an gu ag es an d sc ri pt .

cu m en ta nd th e fa ct th it it m en tio ne d tik

pr ov ed

to be

a di sc ov er y of gr ea t im po r

Le st ha t he w as th e go d of tra ns fo rm at iU n

or id (d ea th ). In lif e he

w as th e lo rd

ug ht th e pe op le sc ie nc e, hu sb an dr y, an d

ia de

Eg yp t pe ac ef ul

an d pr os pe ro us

he na tio ns of th e w or ld . In hi s ab se nc e hi s

28 th ye ar of hi s re ig n Ty ph on , Se t, pr

A so , th e Q ue en of Et hi op ia , to m ur de r

ed th e ki ng do m w ou ld fa ll in to di sa rr a’ .

la m en ta tio ns w er e so te rr ib le th at on e of

)s iri s w as av en ge d by hi s so n H or us w ho

mU H or us , co m pr is e th e di vi ne Tr in ity of

pu re ly al le go ric al an d sy m bo lic . W ha t Is

ve ry lit tle . O si ris w as th e gr ea te st go d of

ca rn at io n, et c. Is is is th e V irg in M ot he r,

d as th e w om an cl ot he d w ith

th e Su n of

H or us fo rm

th e fir st an d or ig in al B la ck

e lin e of di vi ne so ve re ig ns of Eg yp t. H e

)e lo ve d of th e Su n” . Ke

is th e su bj ug at or

) of th e w or ld .H or us

is al so th e su bs ta nc e

de at h an d tim e— th e m at er ia l m an if es ta

th at w hi ch

it co nt ai ns .

kn ow n to th e G re ek s is th e la st di vi ne

A nu . M uc h lik e O si ris , hi st or ic al in fo r

el y sc ar ce . Bu tw ha t th e an ci en t te m pl es

bo ut hi m fo r th e m os t pa rt is cl ea r an d

iri us Tr is m eg is tu s by

th e G re ek s w hi ch

gr ea t” ; “t he

gr ea te st gr ea t”

an d

e m ay at tri bu te w rit in g, m ed ic in e, ch en

st ha ve

be en ov er w h

he he ad of O si ris w as

e pa py ru s w as

W rit tf

w ho w as an ex pe rt in

I t he va lid ity of th e dc

:a te d at A by do s. Th is

ie le ge nd of O si ris

sta K in g of th e ot he r

ki ng of Eg yp t an d t

le of ta w s. H av in g r

rn ey s to in st ru ct ot he

th e ki ng do m . O n th

kn ow n, pl ot te d w ith

ne th is th ey th en ho

U of O sir is’ de at h, he

di ed of fr ig ht . La te r

al tim es , O si ris ,i si s,

so n. Th ei r st or y is

is to ric al ly am ou nt s to

ur n, ce le st ia lf ire , re i

at ur e. Sh e is de sc rib

ni . To ge th er Is is an d

w as ne xt to la st in ti

ed of he av en ” an d “I

g bo rn fro m th e w om

is, be in g re la te d to

w or ld

is ju dg ed

by r H er m es

as he w a

an ci en t pr e- dy na st ic

pe rs on al lif e is ex tre r

ee n ab le to di vu lg e

ca lle d H er m es

M ec

e gr ea t” “t he

gr ea t

LS TE RS ”. To Th ot h

7

Is is an d H or us , Sa ite Pe ri od . C ou rte sy of W ay ne C ha nd le r an d G ay ne lt C at he rin e.

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‘ ‘k

‘L .r

‘ 4- .

‘ . 5

, -\

.4

“ ‘ ‘ :

“4 -

: , ‘

.4 .4

Ph ot og ra ph sh ow in g th e op tic ia n’ s se am

of tw o ad jo in in g ca si ng bl oc ks ; co in w hi ch

st ra dd le s th e se am

is eq ui va le nt in siz e to a U S qu ar te r. C ou rte sy of W ay ne C ha nd le r

an d G ay ne ll C at he rin e.

id of K ha fr e w hi cl in di ca te s th e im m en se nu m be r of st on e ne ce s

. C ou rte sy

o W ay ne C ha nd le r an d G ay ne ll C at he rin e.

0)0)

z -e

0) = C C)

— U . C

= CO C) j— EC

LI,

15 4

Eg yp tR ev isi ted

m ou nt ai ns of st on e w er e ra is ed . Th e le ge nd

st at es th at af te r th e st on es

w er e

qu ar rie d th ey

w er e la id on

sh ee ts of m et al in sc rib ed

w ith

sy m bo ls an d flo at ed

al on g ro ad s al so in sc rib ed w ith sy m bo ls .T he hi gh pr ie st s w ho al on e he ld th e ke y

to th is sc ie nc e, w ou ld st rik e ea ch sh ee t o f m et al w ith

a vi br at in g ro d of sp ec ifi c

le ng th . Th is

in tu rn w ou ld ca us e th e sh ee ts to vi br at e an d w ou ld th en

lif t th e

st on es

in to th e ai r by

th ei r ow n po w er an d tra ns po rt th em

do w n th e ro ad

a

di st an ce w hi ch

w as eq ui va le nt to on e bo w sh ot of an ar ro w . O f co ur se w ha t is

be in g de sc rib ed he re is th e te ch ni qu e of le vi ta tio n an d of co ur se w e kn ow

th is is

to ta lly

ab su rd , or do

w e?

W ith

th es e pe rp le xi ng

iss ue s se ttl ed , le t us re tu rn

to th e dy na st ic su cc es si on .

Th e ad ve nt of th e Th ird

D yn as ty br ou gh t c ha ng es to th e O ld K in gd om

ci rc a 26 39

B .C . Th e ca pi to l w as sh ift ed fro m Ti ni to M em ph is co nc ur re nt w ith

th e fir st of

th e M em ph ite

D yn as tie s. M on um en ta l st ru ct ur es w er e bl ue pr in te d an d m ad e

re ad y fo r co ns tru ct io n:

it w as th e er a of th e py ra m id bu ild er s, it w as th e tim e of

D jo se r. D jo se r. (p ro no un ce d Zo se r) w as th e fir st gr ea t ru le r of th e Th ird D y

\n as ty . D jo se r, or N et er ik he t a s he w as kn ow n in hi s lif et im e, as ce nd ed th e th ro ne

un de r th e au sp ic es of hi s pa re nt s Q ue en N em at ha p an d K in g K ha se kh em ui . th e

]la st ru le rs of th e Se co nd

D yn as ty . H e ac co m pl is he d m uc h in hi s ni ne te en

ye ar s

as ki ng . H e fir st es ta bl is he d a fir m M em ph ite su pr em ac y, th en

he co nt in ue d th e

ex pl oi ta tio n of th e co pp er m in es

in th e Si na i, w hi le in th e so ut h he ex te nd ed

hi s

fr on tie r to th e fir st ca ta ra ct . D jo se r’ s re ig n m ar ke d th e be gi nn in g of ex te ns iv e

bu ild in g in sto ne an d it is he re th at hi s st or y re al ly be gi ns . It is kn ow n all to o w el l

th at D jo se r’ s su cc es s is du e in pa rt to

a gr ea t w ise

m an w ho be ca m e D jo se r’ s

ch ie f ad vi so r. H is na m e w as lrn ho te p. di vi ne pr ie st of th e Th ird

D yn as ty .

A ke y fig ur e in Eg yp tia n hi st or y, Im ho te p w as G od

of m ed ic in e, pr in ce of

pe ac e.

an d th e fir st C hr is t-f ig ur e. K no w n as

he R EA L Fa th er of M ed ic in e.

Im ho te p is th e fir st ph ys ic ia n to sta nd ou tc te ar ly

in th e an na ls of an tiq ui ty . Li ttl e

is kn ow n ab ou t hi s pe rs on al lif e: hi s fa th er w as an ar ch ite ct na m ed K an of er : hi s

.n o th e r w as K hr ed uo nk h; an d hi s w ife R on fr en of er t. H ow ev er , hi s pr of es si on al

• \c hi ev em en ts be ca m e le ge nd ar y. Im ho te p is sa id to ha ve tre at ed

m or e th an

20 0

4i se as es , am on g th em

fif te en di se as es of th e ab do m en ,e le ve n of th e bl ad de r, te n

of th e re ct um , tw en ty ni ne of th e ey es , an d ei gh te en of th e sk in . H e. as w el l as

ot he r ph ys ic ia ns

in Eg yp t, w er e le ar ne d in th e sc ie nc e of fa ci al an al ys is , w hi ch

al lo w s a tra in ed

ph ys ic ia n to de te ct

a m al ad y th ro ug h sh ap e. co nd iti on , an d

co m pl ex io n of th e pa tie nt ’s fe at ur es . Im ho te p kn ew

of th e ci rc ul at io n of th e

bl oo d 4, 00 0 ye ar s be fo re

it w as kn ow n in Eu ro pe . H e w as w or sh ip pe d as

a go d

fo r th e ne xt 30 00

ye ar s; fir st as

a m ed ic al de m i-g od . fro m 26 50

B .C . to 52 5

B .C ., an d th en

as a co m pl et e de ity , fro m 52 5 B .C .- 55 0 A .D . B re as te d sa id of

lm ho te p, “I n pr ie st ly w is do m , in m ag ic , in th e fo rm ul at io n of w ise

pr ov er bs : in

m ed ic in e an d ar ch ite ct ur e; th is re m ar ka bl e fi ur e of Zo se r’ s re ig n le ft so no ta bl e

D io se r, K in g of h e T hi rd D yn as ty , hi lt at or of th e St ep Py ra m id , ci rc a 26 35 B .C .

C ou rte sy of

W av e e C ha nd le r an d G ay ne

IC at he ri ne .

a re pu ta tio n th at hi s na m e w as ne ve r fo rg ot te n

50 0 ye ar s af te rh is de at h he

ha d be co m e a go d of m ed ic in e in w ho m th e G re ek s. w ho ca lle d hi m Im ou th es .

18 0

Eg yp t R ev is ite d

hi st or y, sc ie nc e, ph ilo so ph y, la w , m ys tic is m , a nd th e ea rth

in ge ne ra l, an d te lli ng

th em

th at th e py ra m id s w er e bu ilt by le vi ta tio n. H e w ou ld ha ve be en bu rn ed

in th e sa m e fa sh io n th at th ey bu rn ed Py th ag or as — as

a w ar lo ck !

I do

no t w ish

to ta ke an yt hi ng

aw ay fro m m an ’s m or e re ce nt ac hi ev em en ts .

W ha t w e’ ve ac co m pl is he d is as to un di ng : ab un da nt el ec tro ni c ga dg et ry . am ph ib

io us au to m ob ile s, la se r b ea m su rg er y, co m m un ic at io ns vi a sa te lli te , w al ks on th e

m oo n, fli gh ts fa st er th an

th e sp ee d of so un d. Bu t in all of m od er n m an ’s cr e

at io ns , he ha s ye t to bu ild

a sin gl e py ra m id !! Th e tru th of th e m at te r is th at w e

do no t po ss es s th e m ac hi ne ry or te ch ni ca l sk ill at pr es en t to ac co m pl is h su ch

a fe at . Th us

I l ea ve yo u w ith

th is th ou gh t:

th e f ar th er ba ck

yo u lo ok , th ef ur th er

fo rs va rd yo u’ ll be ab le to se e

N ot es

I. R an da ll St ev en s, O sir i.s — Th e Bo ok of Tr ut h, (L on do n: Th e C am el ot Pr es s Lt d. . 19 76 ). pg . 11 5

2. C he ik h A nt a D io p. Th e A fr ic an O rig in of C h’ ili at io n M yt h or R ea lit y. (W es tp or t: La w re nc e

H ill & C om pa ny . 19 74 ), p. xi v

3. E. A . B ud ge , H is to ry of Eg yp t. (N ew

Y or k: D ov er Pu bl ic at io ns . In c. 19 12 ) pp . 11 3- 11 4.

4. P. R .S . M oo re y, A nc ie nt Eg yp t, (O xf or d: A sh m ol ea n M us eu m Pu bl ic at io ns , 19 88 ). p.

7 5. W al lis B ud ge . H is to ry of Eg yp t, (N ew

Y or k: D ov er Pu bl ic at io ns . In c. . 19 12 ) pg . 12 5

6. C he ik h A nt a D io p, Th e A fr ic an O rig in cf C iv ili za tio n: M yt h or R ea lit y. (W es tp or t: La w re nc e

H ill an d C om pa ny , 19 55 ). p. 22

7. D io p, O p C it. , p.

10 5

8. C he ik h A nt a D io p. Th e A fr ic an O rig in of Ci vi Ii: ci rio n M yt h or R ea lit y, (W es tp or t: La w re nc e

H ill

& C om pa ny , 19 74 ), p.

10 5

9. H er od ot us . Th e H is to rie s, (H ar rn on ds w or th , M id dl es ex . U K. Pe ng ui n B oo ks . 98 3) . pg . 13 1

10 . D ru si lla

D un je e H ou st on , lV on de rfi il Et hi op ia ns of th e A nc ie nt Cu .sh ite Em pi re . (B al tim or e:

B la ck C la ss ic Pr es s) . 19 85 , pp . 70 -7 1

II . Ib id .. p.

I 12 . H er od ot us , Th e H is to rie s, (H ar m on ds w or th , M id dl es ex , U .K . Pe ng ui n B oo ks , 19 83 ), pg .

13 1 1 3. Ib id ., p.

13 3

14 . Jo hn

H. Ev er ar d. Tr an sl at or . Th e D iv in e Py m an de r (L os A ng el es . C al ifo rn ia : W iz ar d B oo ks )

19 68 p. 9

15 . D ru si lla

D un je e H ou st on . W on de rfu l Et hi op ia ns of th e A nc ie nt Cu .v hi te Em pi re . (B al tim or e.

B la ck C la ss ic Pr es s, 19 85 ), p. 67

16 . Ja la nd ris , Th e H al l of R ec or ds : Th e H id de n Se cr et .s

/.t he Py ra m id is ,d Sp hi n. s, (S ar i Fr an

ci sc o: H ol is tic

Li fe Tr av el s, p. 19 80 ) p. 4

17 . D io p, O p C it. , pp . 1- 2

18 . A m el in ea u w as

a gr ea t Eg yp to lo gi st an d ar ch ae ol og is t. H e ex ca va te d at O m El ’G aa h. ne ar

A by do s, an d di sc ov er ed

a ro ya l ne cr op ol is w he re he w as ab le to id en tif y th e na m es of si xt ee n ki ng s

m or e an ci en t th an M en es . H e di sc ov er ed

fo ur ro ya l to m bs of th e ki ng s K a. D en , th e Se rp en t K in g

D je t, an d on e ki ng

w ho re m ai ns un id en tif ie d.

19 . A bb e Em ile A m el in ea u, N ou re Ils

Fm iii Ie s d’ A by dc ss . (P ar is , Pa ris Pr es s. 18 99 ), pp . 24 8

20 . Ib id .. p. 24 7

21 . G as to n M as pe ro . Th e D un n of C irt hz ar io n. (N ew

Y or k, Fr ed er ic k 1.J ng er Pr es s. 19 68 ), p.

15 22 . D io p, O p C it. , p. 27

23 . B K . C ha tte rje e an d G .D . K um ar , C om pa ra tiv e St ud y an d R ac ia l A na ly si s of

th e H um an

13 0

r B ru gs ch . Eg )p t un de r th e

B ru gs ch . Eg yp t un de r th e

D un je e H ou st on , W on de rf

3r es s) , 19 85 , p. 85

ud ge , O si ris an d th e Eg vg

[X u dg e, O si ris an d th e Eg vj

R em ai ns of m d s V al le y C iv ili za tio n. (C al

24 . H ei nr ic l B ru gs ch , Eg yp t un de r th e

25 . Ib id .,

p4 15 8

26 . C yr il A l re d, Eg yp tia n A rt, (N ew

27 . L. A. W rd de ll, Eg yp tia n C iv ili za tio r

C al ifo rn ia : C hr st ia n B oo k C lu b, 19 26 ), p.

28 . C ol lo uc

B at ta , Th e H is to ry of m di i

of th e te rm s us :. d by B at ta is in or de r. A ry a

na m e of C ai ro i

29 . H ei nr ic B ru gs ch -B ey , Eg yp t un de r

30 . H er od ot js . Th e H is to rie s, (H ar m on

31 . A . R os zl ie D av id . Ti re M ak in g of .

E is ev ie r- Ph ai dn , 19 75 ). pp . 13 -1 4

32 . G er al d M as se y. Bo ok of B eg in nr ng

33 . A le xa nr e M or et , Le til le tl en ci vi lls

Th e A fri ca n O ni gi tr of C iri liz at io n: M vi ii or

p. 97 3 4. C he ik h A nt a D io p. Th e A fr ic an O n

H ill

& C om pa ny . 19 74 ), p. 78

35 . H er od o us . Th e H is to rie s, (H ar m o

36 . H ei nr ic

37 . H ei nr ic

38 . D ru si ll

B la ck C la ss ic

39 . W al lis

19 68 ) Pr ef ac eh

40 . W al li s

19 68 ) Pr ef ac e IX

41 . C. P.

B 42 . Jo hn

H 19 68 . pg . 63

43 . H ei nr ic

B ru gs ch . Eg yp t un de r tb

44 . H ei nr i B ru gs ch , Eg yp t un de r th

45 . Pr of es or H .S . Sm ith

an d M is s Ro

Fo re st: Th e K ns al Pr es s) 19 83 , p. 29

46 . Fl av iu E Jo se ph us , A ga in st A pi on

Jo se ph us w as bo rn

in Je ru sa le m

in 37

A Es se ne s. Sa dd uc ee s, an d th e Ph ar is ee s, h

th e R om an s air d Je sv s he w as ap po in te d g

w as lo st.

tro n1 ica lly , he w on

fa vo r w ith

ti 47 . W ill ia ts R. Fi x, Py ra m id O dy ss ey

48 . Fl in de s Pe tri e as qu ot ed by C ha rle

A . St ra ha m ai d C o. ). 18 74 , p. 20

49 . W ill ir n R. Fi x, Py ra m id O dy ss e

50 . W ill ir n R. Fi x, Py ra m id O dv ss e3

51 . Ja m es B re as te d.

A H is to ry of

E1 11 2- 11 3

52 . H ei nr ic h B ru gs ch . Eg yp t un de r th

53 . Ja m es B re as te d,

A H is to ry of Eg y

C ha nd le r

18 1

ut ta , So l D is tri bu to rs . W . N eu m an . 19 65 ), p.

17 ‘h ar ao hs , (L on do n: Jo hn M ur ra y) , 18 91 . p.

14

or k: O xf or d U ni ve rs ity

Pr es s) , 19 80 , p. 93 1

Its Su tti er ia n O rig in an d R ea lC hr on ol og y (H aw th or ne ,

ix ( C al cu tta : C al cu tta

Pr es s. 19 36 ). p. 27 A n ex pa na tio n

is Ir an

or Pe rs ia : B ar ria . is A ra bi a. an d M as ra , w as th e

th e Pi ra ra ah .c . (L on do n: Jo hn

M ur ra y.

18 91 ), p.

19 is w or th : Pe ng ui n C la ss ic s) p.

14 8

he Pa st : Ti re Eg yp tia n K in gd om s, (T ur nh ou t, B el gi um :

(V ol t U ni ve rs ity

B oo ks , 18 81 ). p. 27

11 10 0 eg i’p tie flf le . p. 12 2, as qu ot ed

in C hi ek h A at a D ro p.

R ea lit y. (W es tp or t: La sv re nc e H ill an d C om pa ny , 19 74 ),

gin of C iv ili za tio n M yt h or R ea lit y. (W es tp or t: La w re nc e

rd sw or th , M id dl es ex . U .K . Pe ng ui n B oo ks . 19 83 ). pg .

Pi ra ra oh s, (L on do n: Jo hn M ur ra y) , 18 91 , p.

10 Pl ra ra oh s. (L on do n: Jo hn M ur ra y) , 18 91 , pp . 24 -2 9

ii Et hi op ia tis of tir e A nc ie nt C us hi te Em pi re , (B al tim or e:

ia n R es ur re ct io n. (N ew

Y or k: D ov er Pu bl ic at ro n, In c. ,

lio n R es ur re ct io n, (N ew

Yo tk : D ov er Pu bl ic at io nL s. In c. ,

,o nd on : Lo nd on Pr es s) . 19 30 . Pl at e

I vi ne Py nr on de r. (L os A ng el es .C al ifo rn ia : W iz ar d

oo ks ).

Pl ra ro oh s, (L on do n: Jo hn M ur ra y) , 18 91 , pp . ll

Ph ar ao hs , (L on do n: Jo hn M ur ra y) . 18 91 , pp . 10 -l I

al in d M . H al l, Eg yp tia n C en te rs of C iv ili za tio n, (W in ds or

Bo ok

O ne ). (N ew

Y or k: R ei nl an d Pr es s) . l9 7 . p.

25

D . A fte r st ud yi ng

th e te ne ts of th e se ct s of Ju da is m . th e

be ca m e a Ph ar is ee . A t th e be gi nn in g of th e w ar be tw ee n

ve rn or of G al ile e. Th ou gh

he fo ug ht w ith

va lo r hi s ba ttl e

e R om an ge ne ra l an d w as gi ve n th e na m e fla vr us .

(U rb an na , V irg in ia . M er cu ry M ed ia ), 19 84 , p. 42

Sm yt h. O ur In ire rit an ce

in tir e G re at Py ra m id . (L on do n:

(U rb an na , V irg in ia : M er cu ry M ed ia ), 19 84 , p.

5 (U rb an na , V irg in ia : M er cu ry M ed ia ), 19 84 , pp . 23 0- 22

yp t, (N ew

Y or k: C ha rle s Sc rib ne r & So ns ). 19 09 , pp .

Ph ar ao hs , (L on do n: Jo hn M ur ra y) , 18 91 , pp . 32

,t , (N ew

Y or k: C ha rle s Sc rib ne r & So ns ), 19 09 , p.

11 5

Ia n,

Ti re Pa py ru s Eb er us

Ev er ar d, Tr an sl at or . Ti re D