Need a Big Data Paper

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Your Name

Course Name

College Name

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Abstract

The abstract is on its own page. The first paragraph of the abstract should not be indented. It is

typically 150 to 250 words and summarizes the main points of the paper. It should include your

thesis and summarize your main points and results. Do not include quotations here. Define any

abbreviations and acronyms you use in the paper here. You might want to write it after you’ve

written the rest of your paper, so that it’s easy to summarize.

In academic publishing, writing a good abstract is important, because it is the first, and

sometimes only, bit of information your readers get to help them decide whether they should

read or buy your article. After this paragraph, there is a page break that forces the beginning of

your paper onto its own page: You will want to keep it there.

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This Is Your Title: It Should Be Less Than Twelve Words

This is your introduction and thesis paragraph. The introduction should be about five or

six sentences and provide some background or context for your topic. Do not use I or you in

academic writing. When appropriate, include recent events relating to the topic. For example, if

you are writing about cyber warfare, you might mention Russia using cyber-attacks to influence

the last US presidential election. Your thesis should be one sentence and outline the main points

of the paper.

Literature Review or Background

Summarize and quote the important research on this topic that has gone before you.

Define subject-specific vocabulary or related theory. Usually, you want to look at books for

background. You might want to use your textbook or an encyclopedia to find the names of

researchers or theories that are important to the topic, then, search for those names on the library

website. Use keywords when research of your topic in databases (example: cyber warfare or

cyber attack) to find related articles and books. Need help? Ask A Librarian.

Anytime you summarize what someone else has said, include the author’s last name and

year either in the text or in parentheses at the end. If you quote someone else, include the

author’s last name, year, and page number either in the text or in parentheses at the end. If an

article has three to five authors, write their last names out the first time, then cite only the first

author’s last name followed by “et al.” If an article has six or more authors, include only the first

author’s last name followed by “et al.” If the source does not have an author, such as a website,

put the name of the article or webpage in parentheses at the end.

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The whole point of in-text citations is so your reader can find the correct source in your

References, so make sure authors or titles match both in-text and in References. Find out more

about in-text citation on the Hagan Memorial Library Citation Help page.

Business sources are not standard APA citations; See Purdue Owl for more information.

Discussion

The discussion should be the largest part of your paper and include your argument,

research, and experiences (for example, through Service-Learning). Each main point of your

paper should start its own paragraph with a strong first sentence. Again, do not use I or you in

academic writing.

Remember to introduce quotations with who said it and/or why it’s important. Make sure

quotes fit seamlessly in your paper. Include short quotations (40 words or less) in-text with

quotation marks. Use ellipsis (...) when omitting sections from a quote and use four periods (....)

if omitting the end section of a quote.

This is a longer quote, which is 40 or more words. Indent the quote a half-inch from the

left margin and double-space it with no quotation marks. To get the right format, just

click on “Quote” in the Styles area on the Word frame above. In parentheses, include the

author’s last name, year, and page number.

Conclusion

The conclusion restates the thesis and summarizes the main arguments or points of the

article, so that your reader could just read the conclusion to generally understand the paper. What

is important to learn from reading your paper? If you know of areas in this topic that need further

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study, mention them. After this paragraph, there is a page break that forces References onto its

own page: You will want to keep it there.

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References

American Psychological Association. (year). Article title. Name of Journal, volume, pages.

Author(s). (year). Book title. Where published: Publisher. Retrieved from URL of book

Author(s) of essay or chapter. (year). In Author (Ed.), Book title (pages of essay or chapter).

Where published: Publisher. Retrieved from URL of chapter or essay

Freud, S. (year). Article title. Name of Journal, volume (issue), pages. Retrieved from journal

URL

Jung, C., & Freud, S. (year). Article title. Name of Journal, volume (issue), pages. Retrieved

from article URL if poor navigation on site

Neu, J, Lakoff, R., Kamin, J., Green, P. Lessig, L., Brody, E., … Prinzker, T. (year). Book title

(edition if given). Where published: Publisher.

Pavlov, I., Jung, C., & Freud, S. (year of last update). Web page title. Retrieved from URL of

Web page

Skinner, B. F. (year). Article title. Name of Journal, volume, pages. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx