Workers Comp


The running head is a shortened version of the paper’s full title, and it is used to help readers identify the titles for published articles (even if your paper is not intended for publication, your paper should still have a running head).

Annotated Bibliography

Student Name

Waldorf University

The title should summarize the paper’s main idea and identify the variables under discussion and the relationship between them.

The author’s name and institution should be double-spaced and centered.

The title should be centered on the page, typed in 12- point Times New Roman Font. It should not be bolded, underlined, or italicized.

Blue boxes contain directions for writing and citing in APA style. Since this is a Review of Literature with the reference listed above the summary, only page numbers are needed for quoted material. Please check with professors for preferences on using direct quotes.

Green text boxes contain explanations of APA style guidelines.


Annotated Bibliography

Etherington, M. (2008). E-Learning pedagogy in the primary school classroom: The

McDonaldization of education, Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 33(5), 1-48.

Etherington describes the dehumanization of primary students as a direct result of

online pedagogy. He goes on to illustrate the potential problems that will stem from this:

“isolation, lack of community and decreased socialization of its learners….repetitive

stress injuries, eyestrain, obesity, and social isolation” (p. 43). His research also notes that

human advancement led them to create better technology. This technology led humans to

become reliant on machines solely, which in its brilliance demands social isolation.

“When a child gets on their computer….there is no sense of a physical connection – there

is only a mask that lies on top of a set of computer instructions” (p. 34). Further research

indicated that if a teacher were absent from the classroom, but were elsewhere conducting

an interactive activity, the children would not only leave the computer, but would have no

interest in the computer during this activity.

Lahey, B. B. (2007). Psychology: An introduction (9th ed.). Chicago, IL: McGraw-Hill


In this book, psychology is defined as “the science of behavior and mental

processes” (p. 5). Further, it breaks down the terms that define psychology, and how they

are used to accomplish the goals of psychology. Science is the act of “psychologists

attempt[ing] to understand people through careful, controlled observation” (p. 5).

Behavior is considered any direct action that can be observed. Mental processes are any

“private thoughts, emotions, feelings, and motives that others cannot directly observe” (p.

5). Additionally, this book goes into detail regarding the “nature versus nurture” debate,

Notice the header and page numbers on this page. The actual words Running head are not on any other pages after the first page.

The full title of the paper is repeated here and centered.

Notice the header and page numbers on this page. The actual words Running head are not on any other pages after the first page.

In the Annotated Bibliography the references are listed in alphabetical order with the summary following. The references are formatted with a hanging indent. The summary will be formatted with a block indention.

Notice the only in-text needed is page #s for direct quotes.


This is how you cite a secondary source. It shows that Mead was quoted in a book by Macionis. This is how to use Mead’s quote and still give credit to Macionis, who is the author of the book. Notice the placement of the author and year and the page number after the quote.

in which two researchers studied the effects of early social deprivation on monkeys by

taking a group of infant monkeys and raising them for the first few months of life in

isolation. The monkeys were then introduced to other monkeys, and later placed in

breeding cages. “It was then that the Harlows noticed that the social, sexual, and

emotional behavior of these monkeys was distinctly abnormal” (p. 319). Their research

was further proven by the birthing of baby monkeys.

Macionis, J. J. (2009). Society the basics (10th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice


This book defines socialization from an industry perspective: “sociologists use the

term socialization to refer to the lifelong social experience by which people develop their

human potential and learn culture” (p. 72). Further, this book states that “humans need

social experience to learn their culture and to survive” (p. 72). According to Mead (as

cited in Macionis, 2008), who developed social behaviorism and the central concept of

self, “the self develops only with social experience” (p. 77). Socialization is also critically

enhanced by children attending school. In school, they begin to recognize cultural, racial,

social, and gender differences. During this time, children also begin to form peer groups,

which permit “escape [from] direct supervision of adults” (p. 81) and they first begin to

learn to establish relationships outside the family. Also, this book illustrates the physical

manifestations that can result from a lack of socialization: become “more passive, less

physically fit, less likely to use imagination” (p. 82).


Nevid, J. S., Rathus, S. A., & Greene, B. (2009). Abnormal psychology in a changing world

(Custom ed.). New York, NY: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Avoidant personality disorder (similarly, social phobias), increased proneness to

phobias: terrified of rejection and criticism that they are generally unwilling to enter

relationships. As a result, they do not often have close relationships outside their family.

Separation-individuation: a process by which children learn to “differentiate their own

identities from their mothers” (p. 456). This can create a personality disorder in an adult

who has not been socialized outside the home and lead to separation anxiety. This type of

anxiety could lead to a borderline personality disorder in which people are not overly

confident about their personal characteristics, leading to feelings of emptiness and

boredom. Additionally, there are several communication disorders that can develop in

children who are not taught how to properly enunciate and articulate different letters,

from expressive language disorder, mixed receptive/expressive language disorder, and

phonological disorder, to stuttering.

Ross, W. E. (2000). The promise and perils of E-learning: A critical look at the new technology.

Theory and Research in Social Education, 28(4), 482-492.

To put into perspective the current popularity of online learning, Ross indicates

that “over 85% of Fortune 500 companies use remote training” (p. 482). Additionally,

Ross’s research has found that while some high schools have already converted to the

online format, in Pennsylvania, there is “currently a proposal for a cyber-school that

would enroll children as young as 5 years old” (p. 482). Adults might be able to see how

destructive that is, but in Toronto, the Wired Culture Forum was hosted in which more

than 400 high school students expressed concern regarding technology taking over their


lives – an increasing reliance on machines, the internet isolating them individually, and

“how technology threatens their privacy and ability to relate to others” (p. 483). This is

especially disconcerting because, adults might be expected to notice an effect like this,

but as humanity continues to evolve, the younger generation (high school students) is

beginning to notice the possibility of the dangerous effects of primary children being left

to teach themselves in a fully online environment.