Annotated Bibliography

Student’s Name: Juliana Harris

Institutional Affiliations: American Public University

Fader, J. J., Lockwood, B., Schall, V. L., & Stokes, B. (2015). A promising approach to narrowing the school-to-prison pipeline: The WISE arrest diversion program. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice13(2), 123-142. Comment by Dr. Mark Bond: References need to be formatted in alphabetical order Comment by Dr. Mark Bond: Double space between all lines and paragraphs. Remove the extra spacing. Apply this throughout the paper. Comment by Dr. Mark Bond: Missing information:A Promising Approach to Narrowing the School-to-Prison PipelineJournal Article published Apr 2015 in Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice volume 13 issue 2 on pages 123 to 142Authors: Jamie J. Fader, Brian Lockwood, Victoria L. Schall, Benjamin Stokes 

This article is based on the WISE Arrest Diversion Program which is used as a pipeline to limit school to prison pipeline. This article has mentioned a list of programs which were evaluated in Uthica in New York. Based on the information obtained from this article, this program has so far proved to be successful since it has reduced the number of schools going teenagers from being imprisoned. As such, the research conducted in this article has shown the possibility of an alternative to what is popularly known as the school to prison pipeline. Comment by Dr. Mark Bond: What type of research methods were used in the study? Make sure that you fully analyze the entire article.

Castillo, J. (2014). Tolerance in schools for Latino students: Dismantling the school-to-prison pipeline. Harvard Journal of Hispanic Policy26, 43-58.

According to Castro, the American Bar Association enforces the zero tolerance policies. These policies do not differentiate between offenses that are trivial from those offenses considered as significant. Furthermore, these policies hardly differentiate between those who have intentionally committed offenses from school going children who suffer from behavioral disorders. The author is of the opinion that, zero-tolerance policies are linked to other policies enforced in learning institutions, by metal detectors, body searches, or security cameras. Rather than having zero-tolerance policies, school districts ought to implement other options that are less stringent. As such, this article highlights existing differences between zero-tolerance policies and how they relate to over policing in learning institutions, and considers restorative justice as the best alternative.

Cole, H. A., & Heilig, J. V. (2011). Developing a school-based youth court: A potential alternative to the school to prison pipeline. JL & Educ.40, 305. Comment by Dr. Mark Bond: Spell out the journal name

The authors of this article, Cole and Vasquez described how juvenile courts has implemented a policy resolution with the aim of reducing the phenomenon of “push-out”. These authors are of the opinion that juvenile courts are designed in ways that align to the ways of customary courts. As such, the authors suggest that, the main goal of student-run juvenile courts is to reduce juvenile delinquency and the rate of criminal activities by school children. This can be made possible if the juveniles are led away from the official intake of the juvenile justice system. as such, this article is an example of restorative justice system.

Wilson, H. (2014). Turning off the school-to-prison pipeline. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 23(1), 49-53.

In this article, Wilson puts up a discussion about a professional learning community and the designing of a model that can eliminate the zero tolerance policies in learning institutions. The author is of the opinion that, educators ought to professionally discuss and analyze available evidences on successful strategies. He says that, the stringent policies in schools can be modified if at all the school to prison pipeline is to be eliminated. This study can be used in understanding how stringent policies affect students and how they can be adjusted to reduce the number of juveniles subjected to the criminal justice system.

Cregor, M., & Hewitt, D. (2011). Dismantling the school-to-prison pipeline: A survey from the field. Poverty & Race20(1), 5-7.

According to Cregor and Hewitt, there has been an increase in the disciplinary rate despite several researches that have been conducted on the harms of exclusion discipline. These authors are of the opinion that race is a contributing factor to school discipline. The authors think that racial disparities contribute to the history of disenfranchised people in the history ofd America. They are specific about the ever-growing diversity of stakeholder group that has created measures to end exclusionary discipline at both the local and state levels. In sum, this article highlights a research that was conducted in exclusionary discipline, those affected majorly, and measures to end it.

Curtis, A. J. (2014). Tracing the school-to-prison pipeline from zero-tolerance policies to juvenile justice. The Georgetown Law Journal,102, 1251-1277.

In this article, the author discusses about the phenomenon of school-to-prison. He says that the school environment is unwelcoming due to its extreme corrective policies. Most schools turn their students over to law enforcement due to minor violations. That the school-to-prison pipeline is highly promoted by the lack of discretion in the juvenile justice system. The author provides options to stringent disciplinary policies and recommends the implementation of new behavioral techniques. Rather than forwarding juveniles to the justice system, they can be subjected to community-based program as a way toto atone for their mistakes.

Feierman, J., Levick, M., & Mody, A. (2009). The school-to-prison pipeline…and back: Obstacles and remedies for the re-enrollment of adjudicated youth. New York Law School Law Review, 54, 1115-1129.

The authors of this article put up a discussion regarding the endorsement of school reintegration for juveniles forwarded to the criminal justice system. based on the Due Clause Process, these authors think that, the interest of the juvenile offenders can be considered based on the opinions of the school community and potential values of procedural protection. Therefore, this article shows how the due process can be used as an alternative to eliminate the school-to-prison pipeline.

Clair, M., & Winter, A. S. (2016). How judges think about racial disparities: Situational decision-making in the criminal justice system. HOW JUDGES THINK ABOUT RACIAL DISPARITIES: SITUATIONAL DECISION‐MAKING IN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM. Criminology54(2), 332-359. Comment by Dr. Mark Bond: Missing information:HOW JUDGES THINK ABOUT RACIAL DISPARITIES: SITUATIONAL DECISION-MAKING IN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM*Journal Article published May 2016 in Criminology volume 54 issue 2 on pages 332 to 359Authors: MATTHEW CLAIR, ALIX S. WINTER 

This research has theorized how the decisions made by magistrates can potentially result to disproportionate existence of the minority such as Latinos or African-AmericanAfrican American in the criminal justice system. this article is based on a research where 59 interviews were conducted among the state magistrates. The objective of this study was to understand how judges make their rulings based on racial alignments. The study utilized the noninterventionist approach used by almost every judge. Results from the study suggests that, most judges unintentionally use the noninterventionist approachapproach, and this results in reproduction of dispositions.

Spohn, C.C. (2000) “Thirty Years of Sentencing Reform: The Quest for a Racially Neutral Sentencing Process.” Criminal Justice 2000, Vol. 3. National Institute of Justice. Comment by Dr. Mark Bond: APA Style (7th ed.) Guide

The author of this article conducted a research with the objective of understanding the existing connection between the severity of the sentence and the race of the convicted persons. From the study, it was evident that there is prejudice when it comes to sentencing individuals from the minority groups. As such, there is unconcealed discrimination int he criminal justice system. this research informs researchers regarding the structure of sentencing in courts and the existing racial discrimination.

Blumstein, A. (1993) “Racial Disproportionality of US Prison Populations Revisited.” University of Colorado Law Review. Vol. 64. Comment by Dr. Mark Bond: APA Style (7th ed.) Guide

Blumstein conducted a study to understand racial discrimination in most of the reformatory facilities. From the study, it was evident that there is a huge disproportion in racial disparities of individuals who are convicted for minor offences. As such, this study can be utilized in studies of racial disparities in the criminal justice system.

Butler, P. (1997) “Affirmative Action: Diversity of Opinions.” University of Colorado Law Review. Vol. 68, No. 4. Comment by Dr. Mark Bond: APA Style (7th ed.) Guide

According to Butler, there have been efforts to eliminate racial discrimination in different sectors such as education, employment, and voting. However, similar efforts have not been put towards the elimination of racial disparities in the criminal justice system. the author suggests that, customary justifications ought to be implemented in order toto compensate for earlier discrimination in the judicial system. he goes further to highlights some legal issues with relation to racial prejudice in the administration of justice. This study is relevant to studies that will be conducted on racial prejudice in the criminal justice system.

Wacquant, L. (2000) “Deadly Symbiosis: When Ghetto and Prison Meet and Mesh.” Punishment and Society. Comment by Dr. Mark Bond: Missing information:Deadly Symbiosis: When Ghetto and Prison Meet and MeshBook Chapter published in Mass Imprisonment: Social Causes and Consequences on pages 82 to 120Authors: Loïc Wacquant Make sure that you format book references in APA Style.APA Style (7th ed.) Guide

The author of this article is of the opinion that, prison is used as a modern institution where the criminal justice system practices marginalization and control of the minorities. He thinks that both the prison and ghettos have been made to blend with each other. As such, prisons have been designed to serve as a warehouse that fails to rehabilitate because they have become federal control facilities. Also, prisons have been made to seem like ghettos because they house the poor minority being controlled by white policemen. This article can best be used in the study of racial disparities in the criminal justice system.

Criminal Justice Formal Written Paper Rubric 100 points total

Content (Possible 50 Points): 48

Use of Sources (Possible 20 Points): 14

Grammar (Possible 20 Points): 20

Structure of the Paper (Possible 10 points): 7

Total Points Earned: 89