I’m In Need Of A A Pdf Research Paper To Be Analyzed Using The Template And Other Materials In The Uploaded Files. The Articles Must Be Selected from A Search Engine Not Google. For Example, Academic Search Premier?


KIN 799 Research Critique Assignment #13 2

Conkle, M. T., & Shannon, D. (2020). Correlates of winning interscholastic “Gridiron Football”

championships. ASAHPERD Journal, 40(1), 9-20.


The title of this work seemingly summarized the article’s main idea simply and in an informative way. Based on the title it is somewhat difficult to know all variables concerning this study. However, the word “correlates” implied there are at least two significant independent variables tested and found in the study, and the dependent variable is obviously winning an interscholastic “American” football championship. The sample in this research report was mentioned. It was non-human and non-animal since it is football championship games. No geographic location was specified, but it was a region of the world where “American Football” competitions occur (and champions determined) at the high school level. Since this research did not involve school curricula, no subject matter was addressed in the title; but, from a physical activity perspective, football might be considered the focus area. Waste-words were not found at the beginning on the title. From this research report’s title, it is difficult to determine what the most important word or phrase should have been, all seem vital given how short the title was. The title was seven words long, so it complies with the 3rd through 7th editions of the APA Publication Manual (that have fluctuated relative to title length guidelines).


There was no Abstract for this work. (07 words)


The authors set the context for their study by citing several works from the previous literature. It appears that sources ranged from 1931 through the second decade of the 21st Century, providing some reasonably thorough historical background. There were two previous studies mentioned that related directly to high school football, Barker (1964) and Brown (2008), which were not only the most recent pertinent studies - presumably those were the only studies linked to interscholastic football. Citations for interscholastic football were both research reports, but there were also sources in the Introduction that included studies at higher levels of football as well as “opinion,” “philosophical,” and “theoretical” works. Justification for the study was given, and a scarcity of studies regarding interscholastic football was noted. Based on the literature review in the Introduction, Conkle and Shannon replicated the Barker (1964) study, testing “in-game statistics” or variables (on a much larger scale, when looking ahead in the report). Four objectives were stated. Based on the study’s purposes, there are indications that it was a mixed-methods quantitative study (it dealt heavily in game statistics), since it mentioned correlations (association), sought to determine the most significant variables, and compared winning and losing teams (difference) in championship games. Data were testable given how the problems were phrased.

METHODOLOGY (Subjects, Sample, or Participants)

This study was unique in that it did not involve human or animal subjects, it concerned sport events. The sample included championship football games (N = 280). ALL championship football games (a type of “census” study) governed by the Alabama High School Athletic Association (AHSAA) were analyzed, except four that ended in ties and had co-champions crowned - which nullified that data. Both public and parochial schools participating in the games were included. To this point no subdividing or assigning games to groups was evident. Games in the sample were treated as one large group, comparing winners to losers, as noted earlier, and no special treatments or manipulations. Finally, the study was approved by an Institutional Review Board at the institution where Conkle was employed at the time. (131 words)

METHODOLOGY (Instrumentation)

Data were collected from public-domain records found on the Internet from the AHSAA, a “historical web-site,” and box scores, game summaries, and newspaper articles reviewed in key libraries that housed major newspaper archives. Data were “cross-checked” for accuracy and reliability of information. Given that data were verified from multiple sources, the authors apparently did everything humanly possible to ensure data accuracy.

METHODOLOGY (Procedures)

There is no strict description of the procedures they followed other than what is stated in the previous section. The authors could have addressed the timeline and procedures followed, in better detail. How long it took to gather all data from start to finish could be useful information for anyone wanting to conduct a similar study, so they would be more aware of time and effort involved. It may have been over-kill, but it would be informative if they mentioned whether notebooks, pens/pencils, photocopies, a computer, etc. were used (but it could be helpful for readers learning about research methods) in data collection.


Findings relative to the previous literature were discussed, so the Results and Discussion sections are combined here, as they were in the published research report. For this reason, the authors did a good job discussing their results relative to previous studies and the existing, related, literature. The specific data analysis program used was reported in the article – SPSS Version 23. Descriptive statistics were computed (i.e., frequencies, percentages, ranges, means, and standard deviations) and discussed, as well as presented in tabular form. Those tables displayed somewhat massive but clear information. Reading so many numbers in text format would have been difficult. Data analyses and tables indicated this was a mixed methods study - with correlations, descriptive summaries, MANOVA and ANOVA. Statistical tests used by the researchers seem appropriate for their purposes. Who performed the data analyses is not addressed. All data were reliable and valid, based on how they were reported. All tables are clear and understandable, including the one at the end being logical and insightful. Outcomes are summarized well in-text and are comprehendible. Altogether, the text and tables balance one another and are beneficial. The researchers’ conclusions state clear answers to the research problems in the introduction. They also urged other researchers to investigate this issue in their locales. In other words, others are encouraged to refine the methods used in this study or to modify the research design to study similar problems or questions. Restricted suggestions made for good study replication.

REACTION / REFLECTION (5-paragraphs)

Conkle and Shannon’s research report covers most things that readers need to know, and other researchers should find, in a well-organized study and article. There were some things missing that may have improved the article’s quality. A few more re-readings will be necessary to decide. Overall, the work was excellent (even if I did not understand everything about the statistics). It opened my eyes wider to the sport of football and helped me understand how many possible statistics or variables that can influence which team wins or loses a game – in this case, championship competitions. Until now I never realized that sport statistics can be variables and utilized from a research perspective. I always thought game statistics were simply to help coaches know who plays well and who has not, as well as to establish individual and team records.

As a former high school football player, it was always obvious that the final score matters most in any sport or game. Points scored in a certain half or a given quarter maybe affecting the outcome more than other times in a game was a surprising factor in this study. That was enlightening. It was interesting to see the possible connections and differences among variables concerning “Margin of Victory” and what correlated to “Winning” football games. It is also clearer what possibly had a negative influence and what had a positive influence back in my high school (and now) in games.

As a volunteer coach at James Madison High School, I will discuss this article and its results with the school’s full-time coaches. There is a lot from the report that should be considered and discussing it with seasoned football coaches could serve as professional development for me and the entire coaching staff. With 17 football coaches at James Madison, and three volunteer coaches, there could be many viewpoints to ponder. That many perspectives could help me (and them) refine my beliefs. It could also help the veteran coaches become more successful coaches (and the football program improve overall) in the future.

As a hopeful (future) head coach, I will emphasize the “running game” over the “passing game,” when the talent is available to do that (based on what I saw in this article). Maybe there will be follow-up research studies reported by Conkle and Shannon that shed more light on this issue. It would also be interesting to read research conducted in other states or regions of the United States, as well as from other nations where “American Football” is played. Most specifically, findings being very different or quite similar could benefit me greatly. In the right circumstances, what I learn could motivate or stimulate me to move outside my comfort-zone as a coach, and use new strategies and tactics to win games, that I would have never contemplated before.

In summary, this was an article that I rate highly. It was a new or unfamiliar line of research to me. Given a lack of published studies regarding which variables or statistics help teams win high school football games most, it seems reasonable that it is a new line of research for many readers. It has become obvious that research is conducted in countless areas of interest. Some researched issues or problems are obvious because they are often in the news. Many people may never consider other topics as something that could be (or are) studied by researchers – until they read research studies on new or obscure topics.

February 31, 2050

Terry Conkle

A# 6285

The article this paper matches is posted too. Note how everything is 3rd-person throughout the paper until the end, and at that point 1st-person is minimal and there is no “you” or “your” anywhere in the paper (those words are preachy and/or accusatory – not to mention they get redundant very quickly). Many student papers get too wordy within sentences, and every attempt was made here to maintain brevity and conciseness yet still provide good flow and transition. This sample assignment is ~1550 words (student assignments may be much longer or shorter depending on each article critiqued). DO NOT PLAGIARIZE by copying this and simply typing in a few choice words that pertain to each specific assignment. All articles are very different and require good discussion of the topic and the given article’s content. Read the “Writing Tips” that have been posted, they will eliminate possible errors that are commonly noted in graded papers.