Question 1 of 20
Which of the following best describes what victim precipitation means?
A. The offender carefully selects victims with certain characteristics.
B. The offender lacks a mens rea.
C. The victim somehow caused his or her own victimization.
D. The victim instigated criminal prosecution.
Question 2 of 20
Using Stephen Schafer's victim precipitation typology, which of the following victim categories bears responsibility for his or her misfortune?
A. Political victims
B. Socially weak victims
C. Biologically weak victims
D. Provocative victims
Question 3 of 20
The idea of retribution:
A. was started by Stephen Schafer.
B. is that the offender should suffer in proportion to the degree of harm caused.
C. is the feeling that the victim played an active role in his or her victimization.
D. was begun by feudal barons.
Question 4 of 20
Mendelsohn classified victims according to:
A. their culpability in a criminal act.
B. their biological traits.
C. their ethnicity.
D. their drug addictions.
Question 5 of 20
According to Wolfgang, which of the following plays a major role in victim-precipitated homicide?
B. “Crack” cocaine
D. Interpersonal relationships and escalation
Question 6 of 20
All of the following are types of victims in Mendelsohn’s general victimology EXCEPT:
A. victims of a criminal.
B. victims of technology.
C. victims of the unnatural environment.
D. victims of the social environment.
Question 7 of 20
Which of the following persons is sometimes credited with being the “father of victimology”?
A. Hans von Hentig
B. Beniamin Mendelsohn
C. Stephen Schafer
D. Marvin E. Wolfgang
Question 8 of 20
Who of the following caused a giant uproar over an empirical analysis of rape victims?
A. L.A. Curtis
B. Franklin and Franklin
C. Marvin Wolfgang
D. Menachem Amir
Question 9 of 20
Which of the following persons is associated with the emergence of the field of victimology?
A. Edwin Sutherland
B. Hans von Hentig
C. Robert K. Merton
D. Emile Durkheim
Question 10 of 20
According to the text, which of the following was NOT a reason for the emergence of the victim movement?
A. The pharmaceutical industry
B. The women’s movement
C. The children’s rights movement
D. The growing crime problem
Question 11 of 20
What was von Hentig’s main contribution to the field of victimology?
A. He suggested that rape victims had a subconscious desire to be raped.
B. He proposed the criminal-victim dyad, which looked at the role the victim played in his or her own victimization.
C. He was the founder of what is known today as “critical victimology.”
D. He discovered that there was a strong interpersonal relationship between victims and offenders.
Question 12 of 20
Prior to the Middle Ages, the concept of lex talionis prevailed. This concept included:
D. a victim injustice system.
Question 13 of 20
The first state in the United States to establish victim compensation was __________ in 1965.
A. New York
Question 14 of 20
Totally unacceptable or immoral behavior is referred to as:
A. mala prohibita.
B. lex talionis.
C. ex parte.
D. mala in se.
Question 15 of 20
Marvin E. Wolfgang was responsible for which of the following?
A. He identified several factors as typical of victim-precipitated homicides.
B. He coined the term “victimology.”
C. He did not use an empirical methodology.
D. He described the subculture of nonviolence.
Question 16 of 20
According to Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) data, crime in the United States __________ from 1960 to 1980.
A. increased slightly
B. fell slightly
C. more than doubled
D. fell drastically
Question 17 of 20
The transition from a victim justice system to a criminal justice system was marked by the trend away from a/an:
A. gemeinschaft society toward a gesellschaft society.
B. feudal society to a dictatorship.
C. industrialized society to a rural society.
D. agricultural society to a democratic society.
Question 18 of 20
Backlash to the idea of victim precipitation included criticisms of all the following assumptions EXCEPT:
A. victim behavior causes crime.
B. victims emit signals to which offenders must act.
C. victim behavior is a necessary and sufficient causal mechanism.
D. victims often know their perpetrators.
Question 19 of 20
__________ expanded upon the notion of the victim as an agent provocateur in a book titled “The Criminal and His Victim.”
A. Hans von Hentig
B. Beniamin Mendelsohn
C. Marvin E. Wolfgang
D. Weis and Borges
Question 20 of 20
Mary and Henry are at Mary’s apartment when they start arguing about two opposing political parties, the Unicorns and the Rhinos. Mary is upset that Henry keeps insulting her party, the Rhinos, and insists that he listen to her reasoning. Henry refuses, and attempts to end the conversation by leaving the apartment. Mary steps in front of Henry and blocks his exit. Henry then asks to Mary step aside, but she refuses. In response, Henry pushes her out of his way. The push causes Mary to lose her balance. She falls against a table, hits her head, and sustains a concussion. First, was Mary an active or passive precipitator in her own victimization? Second, was Henry’s response provoked or unprovoked?
A. active; provoked
B. active; unprovoked
C. passive; provoked
D. passive; unprovoked