1.Identify each of the following as examples of nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio scales of measurement.

1. A poll of registered voters in Florida asking which candidate they support 

2. The length of time required for a wound to heal when using a new medicine 

3. The number of telephone calls arriving at a switchboard per five-minute period 
4. The distance first-year college football players can kick a ball 
5. Mental health diagnoses present in an elderly population 
6. The rankings of employees on their job performance 

2) Two hundred raffle tickets are sold. Your friend has five people in her family who each bought two raffle tickets. What is the probability that someone from her family will win the raffle?

3) Jolie has 45 minutes to do her statistics homework. If the mean is 38 minutes and the standard deviation is 3, calculate Jolie's z score. Once calculated, interpret your findings in terms of Jolie's performance.
4) . A psychologist measures units of change for a memory test after students are given an opportunity to sleep only four hours. The following change units were obtained: 7, -12, 4, -7, 3, -10. Find the a) mean, b) median, c) mode, d) standard deviation, e) range, and f) variance. 
5) A student scored 81 on a chemistry test and 75 on a history test. For the chemistry test, the mean was 70 and the standard deviation was 20. For the history test, the mean was 65 and the standard deviation was 8. Did the student do better on the chemistry test or the history test? Explain your answer

6. Suppose you want to figure out what to do with your degree in psychology. You ask some fellow students from your psychology program who recently graduated to find out what they are doing with their degree and how much it pays. What type of sampling is this? What are the limitations of this sampling approach?

7. Variables in which the values are categories are known as) 
Interval variables
Nominal variables
Ordinal variables
Ratio variables

8. Before the researcher can conduct a statistical test, the research question must be translated into 
A testable hypothesis
Additional observations
Mathematical symbols
Numbers
9. The hypothesis stating that there are no differences, effects, or relationships is) 
The alternative hypothesis
The baseline hypothesis
The null hypothesis
The reasonable hypothesis
10. A group of students made the following scores on a 10-item quiz in psychological statistics: {5, 6, 7, 7, 7, 8, 8, 9, 9, 10, 10} What is the mean score? 
6.6
7.2
7.8
8.7
11. A group of students made the following scores on a 10-item quiz in psychological statistics: {5, 6, 7, 7, 7, 8, 8, 9, 9, 10, 10} What is the median score? 
6,7,8,9
12. A group of students made the following scores on a 10-item quiz in psychological statistics: {5, 6, 7, 7, 7, 8, 8, 9, 9, 10, 10} What is the mode? 
5


7



8



9







13. A group of students made the following scores on a 10-item quiz in psychological statistics: {5, 6, 7, 7, 7, 8, 8, 9, 9, 10, 10} What is the range of scores? 



5



6



7



11



14. A group of students made the following scores on a 10-item quiz in psychological statistics: {5, 6, 7, 7, 7, 8, 8, 9, 9, 10, 10} What is the variance, treating these scores as a sample? 



1.53



1.60







2.33







2.56



15. The standard normal distribution has all the following properties EXCEPT:) 



The mean, mode, and median are all equal







The total area under the curve equals 1







The curve is specified by two parameters, the mean and the standard deviation







The curve extends to + and – 3 standard deviations from the mean



16. According to the Empirical Rule, approximately _______% of the data in a normal distribution will fall within ±1 standard deviation of the mean. (Points : 4) 



34



68







95







99.7



17. In statistical computations, the number of values that are free to vary is known as (Points : 4) 



Degrees of freedom







Freedom factor







Variability index







Variation quotient



18. Which of the following reflects a Type I error? 



Rejecting the null hypothesis when in reality the null hypothesis is true







Rejecting the null hypothesis when in reality the null hypothesis is false







Accepting the null hypothesis when in reality the null hypothesis is true







Accepting the null hypothesis when in reality the null hypothesis is false











18. Which of the following reflects a Type I error? 



Rejecting the null hypothesis when in reality the null hypothesis is true







Rejecting the null hypothesis when in reality the null hypothesis is false







Accepting the null hypothesis when in reality the null hypothesis is true







Accepting the null hypothesis when in reality the null hypothesis is false











19. Which type of sampling is used when the experimenter asks 5 area doctors to refer pregnant women to his study and accepts all women who offer to be in his study? (Points : 4) 



purposive sampling







convenience sampling







cluster sampling







stratified sampling











20. In our statistics equations, n refers to: (Points : 4) 



mean







standard deviation







normal distribution







number of subjects

 

21. Which of the following is true regarding alpha? (Points : 4) 



it is also known as the level of significance



value is set by the researcher







value is equal to the probability of a type I error







all of the above are true











22. Macy proposes that boys who play sports are viewed as more attractive than boys who do not play sports. What is her null hypothesis? (Points : 4)



Boys who play sports are not viewed as more attractive than boys who do not play sports







Playing sports will influence how attractively boys are viewed







Boys who play sports are more attractive than girls who play sports







There can be no null hypothesis











23. You calculate a t of 2.38 and note that the tabled value for .01 is 3.22 and for .05 is 2.19. You would conclude that the null hypothesis can be 



Accepted at the .05 level







Rejected at the .01 level







Rejected at the .05 level







None of the above











24. A researcher is studying political conservatism among 11 engineering students and 11 humanities students. The number of degrees of freedom for a t test is: 



22







20







11







10











25. A t test for dependent groups should be used instead of a t test for independent samples: (Points : 4) 



If each participant is measured twice



Whenever there are equal numbers of subjects in each group



Whenever there are only two groups



All of the above











26. In a normal distribution, what percent of the population falls within one and two standard deviations of the mean? (Points : 4) 



34%



68%



95%



cannot tell from the information given











27. Which of the following is more affected by extreme scores? (Points : 4) 



Mode







Mean







Median







None of the above are affected











28. On a histogram, what does the vertical (y) axis refer to? (Points : 4) 



Individual scores







Frequencies







Means







Deviation scores











29. Which statistic refers to the average amount by which the scores in the sample deviate from the mean? (Points : 4) 



Range



Standard deviation







Median







Mode











30. Assume a normal distribution for N = 300. How many cases would one expect to find between +1 and -1 standard deviations around the mean? (Points : 4) 



102







285







150







204











31. A z score of zero tells us that the score is at the________of the distribution. (Points : 4) 



Mean







Very top







Very bottom







None of the above since z cannot be zero











32. In a unit normal curve, what goes on the x axis? (Points : 4) 



Frequencies







Observed scores







z scores







Area











33. Which of the following is a measure of variability? (Points : 4) 



Mean







Range







Interval







All of the above











34. The only measure of central tendency that can be found for nominal data is the (Points : 4) 



Mean 







Median 







Mode 







Midrange











35. If the probability of event A is 0.45 and the probability of event B is 0.35 and the probability of A and B occurring together is 0.25, then the probability of A OR B is: (Points : 4) 



0.8 







1.8 







0.1575 







0.55











36. A researcher knows that the average distance commuting students live from campus was previously 8.2 miles. Because of the rising prices of gasoline, the research wants to test the claim that commuting students now live closer to campus. What is the correct alternative hypothesis? (Points : 4) 



The new mean distance is 8.2 miles.



The new mean distance is less than or equal to 8.2 miles.



The new mean distance is less than 8.2 miles.



The new mean distance is greater than or equal to 8.2 miles.

 

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