States of Matter Phet Simulation Physics 2010

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Name:                                                                            Date:   April 2, 2013                                                                                   

 

Title: States of Matter Lab

 

Procedure with answers:   

 

Go to:  http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/states-of-matter  and click on Run Now

 

States of Matter

 

Review:

1)      Kinetic energy (KE) is the energy of  .

 

2)      Potential energy (PE) is the energy of

 

3)      What property of a substance corresponds to the average KE of its particles?

 

4)      What property of a substance corresponds to the average PE of its particles?

 

5)      List the three common states of matter in order of highest potential to lowest.

 

e-Lab:

1)      Open PhET simulation States of Matter.

2)      The beginning of the lab starts with Neon in a solid state at 13 K.  (Kelvin (K) is a unit of temperature like Celsius and Fahrenheit).  You can heat or cool the substances in the container by sliding the bar on the bucket to Heat (for fire) or Cool (for ice).  Slide the bar to Cool and cool the neon to 0 K (this will take a while).

a)      The atoms are …

 

A)    not moving.

B)    vibrating about a fixed position.

C)    sliding past each other.

D)    moving independently around the container.

 

 

b)      Is this physically possible (think Third Law of Thermodynamics)?

 

 

c)      Go up to the tab that says “teacher” and change the temperature scale from Kelvin to Celsius.  According to this 0 K =    Change the scale back to Kelvin.

 

d)     Notice the pattern of the atoms relative to each other.  This pattern can best be described as

A)    rectangular

B)    hexagonal

C)    octagonal

D)    amorphous (random or no pattern)

 

 

This pattern is the solid Neon's crystalline structure.

 

3)      Click on the “Solid” button on the right of the page.  This puts the Neon's temperature back to 13 K.  What is this temperature in Celsius?

 

 

a)      The atoms are …

A)    not moving.

B)    vibrating about a fixed position.

C)    sliding past each other.

D)    moving independently around the container.

 

b)      Are the atoms still in their crystalline pattern even though they're moving?

 

4)      Heat the solid Neon to 20 K.  What is this temperature in Celsius?

a)      What happens to the motion of the atoms?

 

b)      Are the atoms still in the crystalline pattern?

 

5)      Heat the Neon to 30 K.  What is this temperature in Celsius?

a)      The atoms are …

A)    not moving.

B)    vibrating about a fixed position.

C)    sliding past each other.

D)    moving independently around the container.

 

b)      What state does this represent?

 

Every now and then one atom gains enough energy to break free from the group.  This is called a vapor.

 

6)      Heat the Neon to 60 K.  What is this temperature in Celsius?

a)      The atoms are …

A)    not moving.

B)    vibrating about a fixed position.

C)    sliding past each other.

D)    moving independently around the container.

 

b)      What state is this?

 

c)      Are all of the atoms moving at the same speed?

 

 

d)     Does one individual atom always go the same speed?

 

e)      Temperature corresponds to the  KE (or speed) of the atoms.

 

7)      Heat the Neon to 120 K.

a)      On average, the speed of the atoms is ___________ the speed of the atoms at 60 K.

A)    half

B)    twice

C)    sixty times

D)    the same as

 

8)      Look at water as a gas.  The molecules now have two types of motion.  Linear and

 

9)      Look at water as a solid.  Notice the pattern.  Now look at Neon, Argon, and Oxygen as a solid. What do you notice in terms of the space between the particles?

 

 

10)  Most substances shrink when they freeze from a liquid into a solid, but because of water's unique shape, when it freezes it actually

 

 

11)  0ºC =   K               100ºC =K             x ºC =  K

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