Question 1 of 20
Which of the following suggestions about how to relieve insomnia is FALSE?
A. Avoid excessive use of alcohol or other drugs.
B. If you can’t sleep, get up and do something else until you feel drowsy.
C. Engage in aerobic exercise during the day.
D. See your doctor to get a prescription for sleeping pills.


Question 2 of 20
NREM sleep is characterized by:
A. slow, rolling eye movements.
B. vivid, unrealistic dreams.
C. slow brain waves called delta waves.
D. muscle paralysis.


Question 3 of 20
When cocaine is abused, the resulting effects may include:
A. nervousness, loss of appetite, high blood pressure, delusions, psychosis, heart damage, convulsions, and death.
B. excitability, sleeplessness, sweating, paranoia, panic, depression, heart damage, and heart failure.
C. heart disease, high blood pressure, impaired circulation, and erectile problems in men.
D. restlessness, insomnia, muscle tension, heartbeat irregularities, and high blood pressure.


Question 4 of 20
James has been sleeping for about 90 minutes when his brain shows rapid, irregular waves. His blood pressure rises, his heart rate increases, and his skeletal muscles go limp. Which of the following is the most likely conclusion?
A. James is chronically sleep deprived and his sleep, like his daytime activities, is abnormal.
B. James is experiencing physiological changes that are normal for the third stage of sleep.
C. James is experiencing unusual sleep because earlier he engaged in strenuous physical activities.
D. James is experiencing physiological changes that are normal during paradoxical sleep.


Question 5 of 20
Hypnosis:
A. increases the overall accuracy of the subject’s memories because individuals do not confabulate when hypnotized.
B. is a procedure in which a practitioner suggests changes in the sensation or behavior of the subject, who cooperates by altering cognitive functioning in accordance with the suggestions.
C. can produce age regressions in which adult subjects show the brain waves and mental performance of a young child.
D. has been recommended by the American Psychological Association as an effective procedure to refresh eyewitness testimony in a court of law.


Question 6 of 20
Sleep apnea is a disorder in which a person:
A. suddenly falls asleep without warning during the day.
B. has difficulty waking from sleep in the morning.
C. periodically stops breathing during sleep.
D. experiences bursts of aggressive behavior during sleep.


Question 7 of 20
When alcohol is abused, the resulting effects may include:
A. blackouts, cirrhosis of the liver, mental and neurological impairment, psychosis, and possibly death.
B. impaired motor and sensory function, as well as impaired permanent storage of new information, withdrawal symptoms, and possibly death.
C. loss of appetite, nausea, constipation, withdrawal symptoms, and possibly death.
D. psychosis, paranoia, and panic reactions.


Question 8 of 20
Narcolepsy involves:
A. unpredictable daytime attacks of sleep.
B. inability to breathe while sleeping.
C. a need for 12 to 14 hours of sleep each night.
D. a need for only 5 to 6 hours of sleep each night.


Question 9 of 20
Kiyoshi planned to take over-the-counter melatonin supplements in order to restore the 24-hour sleep-wake cycle that was typical before she began college. After reading her psychology textbook, Kiyoshi decided that:
A. she should refrain from taking the supplements since the long-term safety is unknown.
B. the supplements would be most effective if she were to take them on a long-term basis.
C. she should check and make sure her supplements meet the federal standards for quality.
D. she should check and make sure her supplements meet the federal standards for dosage.


Question 10 of 20
Psychoactive drugs are:
A. drugs that speed up activity in the central nervous system.
B. drugs capable of influencing perception, mood, cognition, or behavior.
C. drugs that slow down activity in the central nervous system.
D. drugs derived from the opium poppy which relieve pain and produce euphoria.


Question 11 of 20
Which of the following is NOT a proposed explanation of dreams?
A. Dreams provide a channel for the release of built-up energy.
B. Dreams represent the current concerns or problems in our life.
C. Dreams represent creative activity during sleep.
D. Dreams are a modification of our normal cognitive processes.


Question 12 of 20
The psychoanalytic theory of dreaming states that:
A. the purpose of dreaming is to express unconscious wishes, thoughts, and conflicts.
B. there is no purpose to dreaming, dreams occur because of random brainstem signals.
C. the purpose of dreaming is to resolve current concerns and problems.
D. dreaming is a by-product of a process of eliminating or strengthening neural connections.


Question 13 of 20
Which of the following does NOT support the cognitive approach to dreaming?
A. The dreams of young children do not have true narratives until age 7 or 8.
B. Sensory deprivation results in daytime thoughts much like dreaming.
C. As cognitive abilities change during childhood, dreams do not change.
D. As the brain matures, the nature of dreaming changes.


Question 14 of 20
The activation-synthesis theory of dreaming states that:
A. the purpose of dreaming is to express unconscious wishes, thoughts, and conflicts.
B. there is no purpose to dreaming, dreams occur because of random brainstem signals.
C. the purpose of dreaming is to resolve current concerns and problems.
D. dreaming is a by-product of a process of eliminating or strengthening neural connections.


Question 15 of 20
One of the weaknesses of the problem-focused theory of dreaming is that:
A. there is no reliable way to determine latent meanings.
B. some theorists are skeptical about the ability to resolve ongoing concerns during sleep.
C. the theory doesn’t explain non-REM dreams.
D. the theory says more about REM sleep than about dreaming.


Question 16 of 20
In his dream, Andy is an infant crawling through a dark tunnel looking for something he has lost. Which theory would be most receptive to an explanation that while Andy was sleeping, neurons in his pons that stimulate leg-muscle movement were active?
A. Psychoanalytic
B. Problem-focused
C. Mental housekeeping
D. Activation-synthesis theory


Question 17 of 20
Biological rhythm is defined as:
A. a periodic, more or less regular, fluctuation in a biological system.
B. an awareness of oneself and the environment.
C. a biological fluctuation that occurs less frequently than once a day.
D. a biological fluctuation that is about 24 hours from peak to peak.


Question 18 of 20
Stimulants are:
A. drugs that speed up activity in the central nervous system.
B. drugs capable of influencing perception, mood, cognition, or behavior.
C. drugs that slow down activity in the central nervous system.
D. drugs derived from the opium poppy which relieve pain and produce euphoria.


Question 19 of 20
The sociocognitive approach to hypnosis suggests that:
A. the hypnotized person is unconsciously playing a role.
B. the hypnotized person is consciously faking or playing a role.
C. hypnosis is a unique state distinct from normal consciousness.
D. hypnosis is an interaction between the executive and the imaginative functions of an individual’s mind.


Question 20 of 20
When people live in an environment free of any time cues and are allowed to sleep, eat, and work whenever they want, they typically follow a:
A. 28.0-hour cycle.
B. 22.8-hour cycle.
C. 24.3-hour cycle.
D. 26.0-hour cycle.

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