The most important element of the fraud triangle is opportunity. For an employee to commit fraud, the workplace environment must provide opportunities that an employee can exploit. Opportunities occur when the workplace lacks sufficient controls to deter and detect fraud. For example, inadequate monitoring of employee actions can create opportunities for theft and can embolden employees because they believe they will not be caught. 




A second factor that contributes to fraud is financial pressure. Employees sometimes commit fraud because of personal financial problems caused by too much debt. Or they might commit fraud because they want to lead a lifestyle that they cannot afford on their current salary.




The third factor that contributes to fraud is rationalization. In order to justify their fraud, employees rationalize their dishonest actions. For example, employees sometimes justify fraud because they believe they are underpaid while the employer is making lots of money. These employees feel justified in stealing because they believe they deserve to be paid more.  (Kimmel 336-337)


Kimmel. Financial Accounting, 6th Edition. John Wiley & Sons. .








Internal control




consists of all the related methods and measures adopted within an organization to safeguard its assets, enhance the reliability of its accounting records, increase efficiency of operations, and ensure compliance with laws and regulations. Internal control systems have five primary components as listed below.2




_ A control environment. It is the responsibility of top management to make it clear that the organization values integrity and that unethical activity will not be tolerated. This component is often referred to as the “tone at the top.”




_ Risk assessment. Companies must identify and analyze the various factors that create risk for the business and must determine how to manage these risks.




_ Control activities. To reduce the occurrence of fraud, management must design policies and procedures to address the specific risks faced by the company.




_ Information and communication. The internal control system must capture and communicate all pertinent information both down and up the organization, as well as communicate information to appropriate external parties.




_ Monitoring. Internal control systems must be monitored periodically for their adequacy. Significant deficiencies need to be reported to top management and/or the board of directors.




(Kimmel 337-338)




Kimmel. Financial Accounting, 6th Edition. John Wiley & Sons. .




This is just some that can be cited


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    Internal Control

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