HSA 535 Midterm Exam ----------------84 Out of 100

Question 1 .

The first step in any epidemiological investigation is to ____.

Answer

understand causation establish risk factors track trends and determine if particular diseases are increasing or decreasing in the population describe the population demographically by age, race, sex, education, and other relevant indicators

Question 2 .

One of the important concepts from the Nuremberg Code is that of ____, which means that the subject understands the scope of the study and can make an informed decision to participate.

Answer

informed consent voluntary consent beneficence primary agent

Question 3 .

A disease or condition that affects a greater than expected (normal) number of individuals within a population, community, or region at the same time is referred to as an ____.

Answer

epidemic endemic outbreak epidemic threshold

Question 4 .

The normal occurrence of a disease or condition common to persons within a localized area is known as a(n) ____.

Answer

transmission pandemic endemic epidemic

Question 5 .

Reproductive health studies ____.

Answer

the role of genetics in disease development the occurrence and risk factors for disease such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes that are slow to develop but span many years the distribution and risk factors for injuries, either accidental or intentional normal reproductive processes and problems that can occur including infertility, birth defects, and low birth weight

Question 6 .

The course of a disease, if left untreated, is referred to as ____.

Answer

transmission control measure natural history geographic pattern

Question 7 .

Physical, biological, social, cultural, and behaviors that influence health are known as ____.

Answer

risk factors health-related states agents determinants

Question 8 .

James Lind (1716-1794) observed the effect of time, place, weather, and diet on the spread of disease by ____.

Answer

comparing sick persons to well persons applying the germ theory to public health introducing randomization when conducting clinical trials applying the germ theory to hygiene practices

QUestion 9

The aspect of consistency means that ____.

Answer

an increasing amount of exposure increases the risk the association should be compatible with existing theory and knowledge the association is consistent when results are repeated in studies in different settings using different methods the findings agree with currently accepted understanding of pathological processes

QUestion 10

The modern epidemiologic triangle includes groups of populations, causative factors, and ____.

Answer

alternate explanations risk factors results coherence

Question 11

For chronic diseases, the time between exposure and symptoms is called the ____ period, which can range from a few months to many years.

Answer

latency incubation temporal plausibility

Question 12

Risk factors or exposures that we think might affect the outcome are known as ____.

Answer

indirect causes direct causes dependent variables independent variables

QUestion 13

Identifying diseases prior to the clinical stage means that prevention efforts can begin immediately. Because the disease is already present, this is an example of ____ prevention.

Answer

primary secondary tertiary quaternary

QUestion 14 The time between infection and clinical disease is referred to as a(n) ____.

Answer

a plausible period temporal period incubation period latency period

Question 15 .

A proportion measured over a period of time is known as a ____.

Answer

period prevalence prevalence proportion point prevalence rate

Question 16

The representation of a numerator as a fraction of a denominator is known as a(n) ____.

Answer

proportion rate incidence rate specific rate

Question 17 .

Prevalence equals ____.

Answer

incidence times duration of disease incidence divided by duration of disease incidence plus duration of disease incidence divided by duration of disease times 100

Question 18 .

While many people are used to hearing proportions represented as a percentage, many population samples in epidemiology are often presented per ____.

Answer

1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000

.Question 19 .

By definition, the disease or condition used to identify a case is determined by the ____.

Answer

hypothesis conclusion prevalence incidence

Question 20 .

A person in the population or study group identified as having the particular disease, health disorder, or condition under investigation is known as a ____.

Answer

person time case suspect case proportion

QUestion 21:

The number of new cases of disease in a specified time (usually one year) divided by the population “at-risk” to develop the disease is known as ____.

Answer

prevalence proportion incidence rate contingency case severity

Question 22 .

The number of existing cases of disease divided by the population is known as ____.

Answer

crude rate person time incidence rate prevalence proportion

Question 23 .

If a bacterium carries several resistance genes, it is called a ____.

Answer

multidrug resistant drug or super-drug multidrug resistant bacterium or superbug resistant bacterium or streptococcus bacterium killer bacterium or deadly bacterium

.Question 24 .

The disease carrier of most concern is known as a(n) ____, which is an infected person who never gets clinically ill, but can transmit the etiologic agent to others.

Answer

healthy or passive carrier pregnant carrier convalescent carrier active carrier

Question 25 .

____ is the transmission of a disease from mother to child during pregnancy or delivery.

Answer

Horizontal transmission Vertical transmission Lateral transmission Polar transmission

Question 26

There is ____ in the overall crude death rate in the United States from the year 1900 until 1996.

Answer

a definite increase a slight decrease hardly any change a clear decline

Question 27 .

The probability of death due to infectious disease in sub-Saharan Africa is ____%, but only ____% in developed countries, such as the United States.

Answer

22; 1.1 35; 10 66; 11 50; 22

Question 28 .

One of the most important emerging problems with the control of infectious diseases has to do with ____.Answer

deadly parasitic infections antibiotic resistant viral infections antibiotic resistant bacterial infections vaccine resistant viral infections

Question 29 .

A(n) ____ is an infected individual capable of transmitting disease during and after clinical disease.

Answer

convalescent carrier passive carrier active carrier inactive carrier

Question 30 . ____ is the transmission of a disease from person to person, and may be directly from one person to another, or indirectly from one person through an intermediate item to another person.

Answer

Horizontal transmission Vertical transmission Quick transmission Polar transmission

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    HSA 535 Midterm Exam Part I ----------------84 Out of 100- Mider
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