In the article the author reviews research evidence on the prevalence of mental disorders in lesbians, gay men, bisexuals and transgender (LGBTs) and shows, using meta-analyses, that LGBTs have a higher prevalence of mental disorders than heterosexuals. The author of the paper tries to offer a conceptual framework for understanding the excess in the prevalence of mental disorder son LGBTs in terms of minority stress: explaining that prejudice, stigma, and discrimination contribute in the creating of a social environment that is hostile and stressful, which can cause mental health problems. The model describes the stress processes, and they include; the experience of prejudice events, hiding and concealing, expectations of rejection, internalized homophobia, and an ameliorative coping processes. This conceptual framework provides the basis for the review of the research evidence, provides considerations for research directions in the future, and also the exploration the implications of public policy decisions (Cochran, S.D., Sullivan, J.G., & Mays, Vickie, M. 2003).
The author provides a clear example; he shows that this section of minorities in the society has experienced a pervasive and long history of discrimination in the workplace. He places the population of LGBT in the workforce at about eight million people but says despite this high number there is no law that explicitly prohibits gender identity and sexual discrimination against them. The article then further surveys the social science research and evidence that illustrates the scope and nature of this discrimination against the LGBT workers and the negative effects this discrimination has on both the employers and employees. The article also analyzes the existing legal protections against this discrimination, which include the constitutional protections for the public sector employees; it also tries to analyze the courts’ interpretations of laws regarding gender and sexuality.
The author selects research articles and other material from the field for review and further analysis. His methods were thorough and the writing precise. The writing is flowing, and the transitions from one idea to another or from a sentence to another are not jarring but smooth. The author is also able to capture attention by stating what the article is about in the first paragraph. He then states the problem and explains where he thinks most blame should be placed. His methodology also clearly shows the intent to integrate findings that had been reported already, into a single article that could act as a starting point for future research. The research the author his paper on bases its findings on a study that examined the native cultural participation, physical and mental health, trauma, and substance abuse among two samples. The initial sample was a group of adults who identified themselves as either lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender participants. The comparative group was made up of adults who identified themselves as heterosexuals. The results indicate that when the sample was compared to the control group there were higher rates of childhood physical abuse and trauma, higher levels of psychological symptoms and more mental health service utilization. They also had different patterns of alcohol abuse and were more likely to have used illegal drugs (Balsam, K.F., Huang, B., Fieland, K.C., Simoni, J.M., & Walters, K.L. 2004).
Balsam, K.F., Huang, B., Fieland, K.C., Simoni, J.M., & Walters, K.L. (2004). Culture, trauma, and wellness: A comparison of heterosexual and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and two-spirit Native Americans. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(3), 287-301.
Cochran, S.D., Sullivan, J.G., & Mays, Vickie, M. (2003). Prevalence of mental disorders, psychological distress, and mental health services use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(1), 53-61.
- 6 years ago