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QUESTION 2
 
Most commonly, land is communally owned and managed by an extended kin group among:
 
a.
horticulturalists.
 
b.
industrialists.
 
c.
foragers.
 
d.
pastoralists.
 
e.
agriculturalists.
 
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QUESTION 3
 
The most common form of reciprocity found among foragers is:
 
(Be careful with this one, many of the terms are close to each other but there is only one "right" answer.)
 
a.
market exchange.
 
b.
negative reciprocity.
 
c.
equal reciprocity.
 
d.
generalized reciprocity.
 
e.
balanced reciprocity.
 
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QUESTION 4
 
In what Native American groups did potlatches occur most frequently in the early 1800s?
 
a.
Kwakiutl and Tlingit
 
b.
Navajo and Hopi
 
c.
Trobriand Islanders
 
d.
Cherokee and Iroquois
 
e.
Seminole and Crow
 
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QUESTION 5
 
Market exchange is:
 
a.
found only in state socities.
 
b.
never found in horticultural and agricultural societies.
 
c.
the primary distribution mechanism in most societies today.
 
d.
the only true rational economic system that exists today.
 
e.
found universally in all societies today.
 
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QUESTION 6
 
In capitalist societies:
 
a.
most people produce goods to create profit.
 
b.
most people produce goods to consume them.
 
c.
firms produce goods to create wealth.
 
d.
firms produce goods to trade for other goods.
 
e.
firms produce goods to entice more laborers.
 
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QUESTION 7
 
Exchanging gifts is an example of:
 
a.
redistribution.
 
b.
generalized reciprocity.
 
c.
negative reciprocity.
 
d.
balanced reciprocity.
 
e.
potlatch reciprocity.
 
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QUESTION 8
 
Capitalism results in the creation of a society in which:
 
a.
there will always be rich and poor.
 
b.
everyone has equal access to resources of production.
 
c.
individuals who work hard enough are able to become rich.
 
d.
the rich will always take care of the poor.
 
e.
the poor and the rich will always exchange places over generations.
 
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QUESTION 9
 
The difference between the value of the workers' contributions to production and the wages that they are paid is called:
 
a.
symbolic value.
 
b.
capital loss.
 
c.
profit.
 
d.
labor advance.
 
e.
capitalism.
 
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QUESTION 10
 
In general, as population and social complexity increase:
 
a.
a differential access to land and equal access to knowledge develop.
 
b.
differential access to resources develop.
 
c.
equal access to knowledge and labor develops.
 
d.
equal access to resources develops.
 
e.
differential access to social networks develops.
 
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QUESTION 11
 
Political organization is all about:
 
a.
power.
 
b.
authenticity.
 
c.
legitimacy.
 
d.
knowledge.
 
e.
wealth.
 
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QUESTION 12
 
How groups and individuals use power and authority to achieve various public goals in a society is part of the:
 
 
political ideology.
 
 
political norm.
 
 
political process.
 
 
stratified society.
 
 
secret society.
 
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QUESTION 13
 
The attempt of one group to reallocate power and resources within a political structure is a:
 
a.
rebellion.
 
b.
riot.
 
c.
regeneration.
 
d.
revolution.
 
e.
renaissance.
 
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QUESTION 14
 
When one group attempts to replace one political structure with another, it is called:
 
a.
rebellion.
 
b.
revolution
 
c.
terrorism.
 
d.
oppression.
 
e.
revitalization
 
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QUESTION 15
 
In which form of social differentiation would you find no formal recognition of differences between individuals and groups?
 
a.
Rank societies
 
b.
Egalitarian societies
 
c.
State societies
 
d.
Stratified societies
 
e.
Horticultural societies
 
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QUESTION 16
 
Chiefdoms are classified as:
 
a.
stratified societies.
 
b.
balanced societies.
 
c.
egalitarian societies.
 
d.
rank societies.
 
e.
potlatch societies.
 
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QUESTION 17
 
The most important basis for conformity in most societies, especially those that are kinship-based and organized face-to-face is:
 
a.
internalization of social norms and values.
 
b.
adherence to formal law.
 
c.
fear of military actions.
 
d.
respect of court system.
 
e.
obedience to police.
 
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QUESTION 18
 
Tribes are primarily found among which subsistence groups? (Read carefully.)
 
a.
Horticulturalists and pastoralists
 
b.
Pastoralist and foragers
 
c.
Foragers and horticulturalists
 
d.
Chiefdoms and agriculturalists
 
e.
Agriculturalists and horticulturalists
 
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QUESTION 19
 
All of the following help integrate tribal societies EXCEPT:
 
a.
age-based groups.
 
b.
belief in common descent from an ancestor.
 
c.
military societies.
 
d.
secret societies.
 
e.
formal court systems.
 
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QUESTION 20
 
Unlike chiefdoms, in state societies _____________________ most commonly regulates social relations between different social strata and defines an individual's rights and duties.
 
a.
kinship
 
b.
citizenship
 
c.
gender
 
d.
age
 
e.

 

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