MULTIPLE CHOICE SECTION INSTRUCTIONS: Read all instructions carefully. Please answer all questions. Each question is worth 1 point. The Multiple Choice section is worth 20 points.

**Do not enter your answers here.** Type in the letter you select as the best answer on the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor.

1. What is the correct sequence of steps in the scientific method?

I. Make observations and ask a question

II. Analyze the data

III. Develop a hypothesis

IV. Share the results with other scientists

V. Design and perform an experiment to test the hypothesis

A) I>II > III > IV > V

B) III > I > V > II > IV

C) V> IV > III > II > I

D) I> III > V >II > IV

E) V > II > I > III > IV

2. You have formulated a hypothesis: “Apples contain more vitamin C than oranges.”

To test your hypothesis you measure vitamin C levels in 20 oranges and 20 apples from trees that were grown in the same orchard under the same environmental conditions (temperature, rain, sunlight). This experiment was conducted twice. The control group in the experiment is

A) type of soil, temperature, amount of rain and sunlight in the orchard

B) vitamin C levels

C) oranges

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D) apples

E) a large sample size and repeated experiment

***Use the following information to answer questions 3, 4, 5 & 6 below***:

A group of medical researchers investigated the effects of Drug X on lowering cholesterol levels in a group of men between the ages of 50 and 70 years old. The researchers did the following experiment and obtained the indicated results: One group of 150 men took a tablet containing Drug X for 3 weeks – 95 of these men decreased their cholesterol levels by at least 10% (three men from this group dropped out of the study). Another group of 150 men was given a tablet with no added Drug X for 3 weeks – 10 of these men decreased their cholesterol levels by at least 10% (two men from this group dropped out of the study).

3. Which of the following is the best hypothesis for this experiment?

A) Will drug X lower cholesterol levels in men between the age of 50 and 70 years?

B) Drug X will lower cholesterol levels in men.

C) Since high cholesterol levels significantly increases several health risks for men, drug X is most likely beneficial.

D) Men between the age of 50 and 70 years will have reduced cholesterol levels if they take drug X over a 3 week period.

E) There is no significant difference in cholesterol levels between men that take drug X and those that don’t take it.

4. Which of the following was the control group in this experiment?

A) the amount of Drug X contained in the tablet

B) the number of participants in each group at the end of the experiment

C) the group of participants that received tablets containing Drug X

D) the group of participants that received tablets that did not contain Drug X

E) the number of participants in each group at the beginning of the experiment

5. Which of the following is a dependent variable in this experiment?

A) the amount of Drug X contained in the tablet

B) participants that received tablets containing Drug X

C) the average age of the participants

D) number of participants in each group at the beginning of the experiment

E) cholesterol levels

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6. Which of the following is an independent variable in this experiment?

A) the amount of Drug X contained in the tablet

B) participants that received tablets containing Drug X

C) the average age of the participants

D) number of participants in each group at the beginning of the experiment

E) blood pressure

7. A chemotherapy drug affects the enzyme DNA polymerase. In which part of the cell cycle does it inhibit cell division?

A) Metaphase

B) S phase

C) G1

D) Cytokinesis

E) Prophase

8. A researcher planted seeds from four types of tomatoes (Roma, Cherry, Big Boy and Early Girl) in a greenhouse to determine which type of tomato produce the largest number of tomatoes per plant. The plants were grown for 70 days under the same temperature and light conditions. The average results for 20 plants of each type are shown below. Choose the data set that demonstrates that Cherry tomatoes produce the largest number of tomatoes per plant.

A) Roma: 20 tomatoes, Cherry: 18 tomatoes, Big Boy: 30 tomatoes, Early Girl: 10 tomatoes

B) Roma: 1.8 lbs, Cherry: 2.8 lbs, Big Boy: 2.7 lbs, Early Girl: 1.0 lbs

C) Roma: 3 cm, Cherry: 1 cm, Big Boy: 10 cm, Early Girl: 7 cm

D) Roma: 2 cm, Cherry: 10 cm, Big Boy: 7 cm, Early Girl: 6 cm

E) Roma: 23 tomatoes, Cherry: 28 tomatoes, Big Boy: 10 tomatoes, Early Girl: 27 tomatoes

9. The majority of climate scientists believe that the current change in climate is caused predominantly by ________.

A) an increase of the greenhouse effect

B) a decreased reliance on fossil fuels for energy

C) a thinning of the ozone layer

D) a melting of the polar ice caps

E) an increase in solar radiation

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10. Based on the following phylogenetic tree, which of the following conclusions are *NOT* correct? Each letter represents a hypothetical species.

A) A and E share a common ancestor

B) B is one of A’s ancestors

C) E and D are more closely related to each other than to C

D) C is more closely related to E than to B

E) A and B are closely related

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11. You are taking a cruise from California to Hawaii. About halfway there the ship begins to sink. You are able to board a lifeboat, but now you are floating in the ocean waiting to be rescued. After several days you are so thirsty that you bend over the side of the boat and drink lots of salty seawater. What happens to your body?

A) You throw up because sea salt is toxic to humans.

B) You get thirstier because of osmosis.

C) Salt diffuses into your cells, water follows, your cells start to expand and you feel bloated.

D) Since sea water consist of 96.5% fresh water (and only 3.5% salt) you will feel much better.

E) You get dehydrated because water is unable to cross the semi-permeable membranes of your cells.

12. You are spraying your garden with a pesticide and you accidentally swallow a small amount. You read on the package that this pesticide inhibits ATP synthase. Should you be worried?

A) ATP synthase is part of the light dependent reaction in photosynthesis; this pesticide will therefore not affect humans. So don’t worry!

B) ATP synthase is an enzyme involved in the citric acid cycle so all animals, humans included, will be affected. Call the doctor.

C) ATP synthase found in the pesticide is a very toxic compound. Call the doctor.

D) ATP synthase is involved in both photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Call the doctor.

E) ATP synthase inhibitors will not affect humans, but there might be other toxic ingredients in the pesticide, so it is best to call the doctor to be on the safe side.

13. In the following chemical reaction, what is carbon dioxide (CO2)?

12 H20 + 6 CO2 -> 1 glucose molecule + 6 O2

A) substrate

B) product

C) enzyme

D) activation factor

E) independent variable

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14. Which of the following is NOT a feature of DNA?

A) Adenine (A) forms a base pair with thymine (T)

B) Complementary strands are anti-parallel, running in opposite directions

C) Complementary strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between phosphate groups

D) Nucleotides within a single strand are connected by covalent bonds

E) All of the above are features of DNA

15. A man who carries a harmful sex-linked gene on his X chromosome, will pass the gene on to

A) All of his daughters

B) Half of his daughters

C) All of his sons

D) Half of his sons

E) All of his children

16. A double-stranded DNA molecule that has 22% guanine will have

A) 28% thymine

B) 22% cytosine

C) 44% adenine

D) 26% uracil

E) Both A and B are correct

17. Which of the following variations could be subject to natural selection?

A) A dog with short legs due to malnutrition is able to crawl into holes better than his litter mates

B) A tree is not infested by a ground-dwelling beetle when the homeowner cuts the lower branches

C) A hyena is born with a spotted fur pattern that allows it to hide in the grass better than his litter mates

D) A pigeon learns than when its keeper comes near it will be fed

E) All of these variations may be acted on by natural selection

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18. The ability of fireflies and angler fish to produce light is an example of convergent evolution. What can you conclude about these two animals based on this information?

A) They share a recent common ancestor

B) They are both adapted to environments low in light

C) The ability to produce light is an ancient trait

D) They are found in the same location

E) All of the above

19. You observe the following outside your window: A grasshopper is munching away on a leaf when a hawk swoops down and eats the grasshopper. What is the grasshopper in this situation?

a) secondary consumer

b) prey

c) herbivore

d) predator

e) b, c and d

20. Which of the following statements is *NOT* true?

a) The cells resulting from meiosis are diploid and the cells resulting from mitosis are haploid.

b) Meiosis and meiosis both starts with one cell, but meiosis ends with four and mitosis with two.

c) Mitosis produces new cells for growth and repair, meiosis produces gametes.

d) Mitosis goes through cytokinesis once, meiosis goes through cytokinesis twice.

e) Cross over happens in meiosis, but not in mitosis.

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MATCHING SECTION #1

MATCHING SECTION INSTRUCTIONS: Read all instructions carefully. Please answer all questions. Each question is worth 1 point. This Matching section is worth 10 points.

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**Do not enter your answers here.** Type in the letter you select from the right column as the best answer on the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor.

Term or Concept

1. Water molecule

2. Carbon

3. Homeostasis

4. Ionic Bonding

5. Covalent Bonding

6. Carbohydrate

7. Enzyme

8. Acid

9. Base

10. Lipid

Definition/Association

A. energy source

B. two atoms sharing electrons

C. electron donated/received

D. hydrophobic

E. element found in all living organisms

F. catalyst

G. OH-> H+

H. polar

I. characteristic of all living organisms

J. H+ > OH-

MATCHING SECTION #2

MATCHING SECTION INSTRUCTIONS: Read all instructions carefully. Please answer all questions. Each question is worth 1 point. This Matching section is worth 10 points.

Term or Concept

1. Ribosome

2. Mitochondria

3. Nucleus

4. Golgi apparatus

5. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

6. Membrane

7. Cell Wall

8. Lysosome

9. Chloroplast

10. Cilia

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Definition or Association

A. packaging and transport

B. digestion

C. genetic material storage

D. protein assembly

E. structural support

F. lipid production

G. glucose breakdown

H. movement

I. oxygen production

J. contain transport proteins and receptors

SHORT ANSWER SECTION

ANSWER TWO QUESTIONS (OUT OF 4) FROM THIS SECTION. Each question is worth 10 points. Total points for this section is 20 points.

Each answer should be roughly half a page long. Answers will be graded for accuracy and completeness, as well as spelling and grammar.

**Do not enter your answers here** Type your answers into the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor.

1. At the beginning of the spring, Dr. Allan notices that there is an equal distribution of yellow and blue butterflies in the vacant lot across the street from his house as well as in his own backyard. Several of the shrubs and flowers in the area are also yellow. By the end of the summer he notes that there are mostly yellow butterflies around with very few blue ones. These observations are examples of what biological principle? Develop a hypothesis to explain Dr. Allan’s observations.

2. You are analyzing the ingredients in a new hot dog that is going to be put on the market soon. A) Explain the biological function of these natural chemicals that you might find in a hot dog: protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins.

B) Would it be healthier to eat a hot dog that contains mainly saturated fat, or one that contains mainly unsaturated fat? Explain your answer

3. Explain the difference between, and give an example of: mutualism, parasitism and competition

4. Explain the differences and similarities between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell.

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ESSAY SECTION

Complete 2 out of 5 questions in this Essay Section

INSTRUCTIONS: Each question is worth 20 points. Total points for this section is 40 points.

**Do not enter your answers here.** Type your answers into the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor.

1. Give a specific example of how humans are damaging the environment. Explain how this environmental damage could be reduced or eliminated.

2. Humans share 98% of their genes with chimpanzees, 90% with mice, 50% with fruit flies, and 37% with celery. Please explain the evolutionary significance of these data. Why do you think that many studies of the possible toxicity of new drugs are done on mice?

3. The habitat of one species of tropical fish is red coral reefs. The large majority of the fish in this population are red. A few individual fish carry a mutation that prevents the production of the red pigment; as a result these individual fish are white. The temperature of the ocean where these fish live gets warmer and warmer over a 10 year period, and as a result the coral is bleached and turns white. Use what you have learned about natural selection to explain how this bleaching event may have affected the evolution this fish population (not including possible direct effects of warmer temperatures on the fish). Include the following terms in your explanation: differential reproduction, beneficial trait, allele frequency, selection pressure, evolution.

4. Use what you have learned about energy transfer in food chains and the second law of thermodynamics to explain why it is an environmentally good choice to eat a plant based diet. Include the following terms in your answer: producer, herbivore, omnivore, trophic level, resources and energy.

5. If researchers establish that Myrothecium verrucaria is an effective biological control agent against kudzu, they must then demonstrate that the pathogen will not harm desirable species such as soybeans (a close relative to kudzu). Describe an experiment that could fulfill this purpose, including all steps of the scientific method. Identify control(s), dependent and independent variables

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