Need help with the following Discusion Question - Needs to be at least 5 paragraphs , APA format , no work cited from wikipedia , no plagirism

 

Discuss Porter's Competitive Forces. Your discussion should investigate and provide an example of an organization that is using the model you have selected.

Read the PDF. After we handshake I will give you the references

Sex Ratio



The normal male to female live birth sex ratio ranges from about 1.03 to 1.07. The sex ratio is defined as the ratio of male births to female births. You might expect boy and girl births to be equally likely, but in fact, baby boys are somewhat more common than baby girls.



Higher sex ratios are thought to reflect prenatal sex selection, especially among cultures where sons are prized more heavily than daughters. We will review sex ratios in the United States as a whole, as well as in individual states, to determine whether sex ratios vary significantly among various ethnic and racial groups.



To do this analysis, we will utilize natality data for the United States, provided by the Centers for Disease Control. 



In the first part of the assignment, we will look at sex ratios for your home state, over the time period 1995 to 2002, by race. To obtain this information: 

  • Go the CDC Wonder website,
  • Click on Births under the WONDER Online Databases to bring you to the Natality Information screen
  • On this screen, click Natality for 1995-2002.
  • On the following screen, click I Agree in order to agree to abide by the government rules for data use (primarily, concerning confidentiality).
    • This will bring us to the Natality, 1995-2002 Request screen.
    • In the block 1. Organize table layout, group results by year, followed by race, and then gender.
    • In the block 2. Select maternal residence, choose your state.
    • You can leave blocks 3 through 6 at their default values (i.e., All).
    • Click Send.
  • A new screen will open, with data (births) tabulated by Year, Race, and Gender.
  • Click Export, click Save, and a text file named Natality, _1995-2002 .txt or something similar will be downloaded onto your computer.

We can now process the downloaded data in Excel. 

  • Load the text file into Excel. This will probably open the Text Import Wizard.
    • Accept the defaults, and you should have a spreadsheet with the natality data entered.
  • We will need to edit the data slightly before calculating sex ratios and drawing graphs of the sex ratios. To do this:
    • Scroll down to the end of the spreadsheet, and delete the rows with the extraneous information about the dataset. (This starts on or about row 203.)
    • You may also delete the columns with headings Year CodeRace Code, and Gender Code since we will not be using them, however this is not necessary.
    • Next, sort the data, in order to delete some extraneous rows. Select the remaining columns, choose Data > Sort, then sort by Race in ascending order.
    • Scroll down to the end of the worksheet, and delete all rows with blanks for Race.
    • We will now add a new column to the worksheet for ratios.
      • Go to the first blank column in the worksheet: this column should be immediately to the right of a column labeled Births.
      • In the first row of this column, type Ratios.
    • Now, we will calculate different proportions of births, using formulas in excel. It is important to use excel to do the calculation, because it will allow you to quickly complete all of the ratios.
      • First, calculate the ratio of female births to total births for the American Indian race (female births/total births).
      • Next, calculate the ratio of male births to total births for the American Indian race (male births/total births).
      • Finally, calculate the ratio of male births to female births (male births/total births)
      • If you don’t know how to do this calculation easily in Excel, please check out the screencast, which reviews this.
      • Once you have completed the first three cells in the ratio column, you can select them and copy them.
      • Select the remaining cells in the column and paste.
      • You have now completed calculating all of the ratios, however, you may wish to double check to ensure that the formulas have adjusted for each cell.     
    • Once you have the Ratio column filled out, select that column, then Copy.
    • With the column still selected you want to select, click Paste Special and then Values. This will convert the formulas you entered to numbers, so they do not change when you do the next sort.
  • Select all the columns, then Data>Sort>Notes in ascending order. We will be graphing the sex ratios for the years 1995 to 2002, by race.
    • Feel free to drop the two to four races that have the fewest numbers of births in your state.
  • Draw a line chart with markers with the year along the X-axis (we are looking at 1995 through 2002) and sex ratio along the Y-axis (with sex ratios typically between 1 and 1.1, though this may vary in your state).
    • If your version of excel has the Chart Wizard:
      • In step two of the Chart Wizard, choose the Series tab; in this window you’ll be adding all the information for the various plots.
      • Under category (X) axis labels, drag your mouse over the cells 1995, 1996... 2002.
      • For values, draw your mouse over the seven successive sex ratios for the particular racial group you chose; in the name box, enter the racial group; do this for each of the groups you want to display.
      • Select Next when you have finished with all the racial groups, and you will be brought to the Chart Options screen.
      • Here, you can customize your graph, with a title and X and Y axis labels (i.e., your state births, year, and sex ratio respectively).
      • Continue with Next, and finish the graph.
    • If your version of excel does not have the Chart Wizard, you will need to do some reformatting of your data before you can create a line chart. It is good practice to create a new worksheet in order to preserve your original data.
      • Your data should mimic the way you want your line chart to look. In this case, you want to create horizontal labels for each of the years (1995 through 2002) and vertical labels for each of the races. It should follow this format:

 

 Year 1

Year 2

Year 3
Race A



Ratio for Race A in Year 1Ratio for Race A in Year 2Ratio for Race A in Year 3
Race B



Ratio for Race B in Year 1Ratio for Race B in Year 2Ratio for Race B in Year 3

 

    • After you have reformatted your data, select all of the data, then select Insert, then Line, then Line with Markers.
    • You should now have a line chart with each race having its own line, the ratios on the Y-axis, and the years on the X-axis.
    • You may wish to modify the Y-axis by right-clicking on it. Your upper and lower values on the axis should be just above and below your highest and lowest ratio values.
  • In a Word document, paste the graph you created (or, alternatively, submit your Excel workbook along with the Word document) and describe your findings, making sure to:
    • Summarize the sex ratios for each of the racial groups.
    • Explain whether the sex ratios are relatively constant through the 1995 to 2002 period for all of the racial groups or if there are trends?
    • Explain any racial groups that have noticeably higher or lower sex ratios than other groups.
    • Explain the conclusions you are drawing from your graph.



In the second part of this assignment, you will undertake some formal statistical procedures with the natality data. We will repeat the previous steps, with some slight modifications.

  • Return to the CDC Wonder website.
  • Click on Births under the WONDER Online Databases to get to the Natality Information screen.
  • Select Natality for 2007 - 2012.
  • On the next screen, click I Agree in order to agree to abide by the government rules for data use (primarily, concerning confidentiality).
  • This will bring us to the Natality, 2007-2012 Request screen.
    • In block 1. Organize table layout, group results by race and then gender (not year).
    • In block 2. Select maternal residence, choose your state.
    • You can leave block 3 at its default values (typically, All).
    • In block 4. Select birth characteristics; select All Years under Year, and 1st child born alive to mother under Live Birth Order.
    • Blocks 5 and 6 can be left at their default values.
  • Click Send. A new screen will open, with data (births) tabulated by race and gender.
  • Click Export, click Save, and a text file named Natality 2007-2012.txt (or something similar) will be downloaded onto your computer.



We have only four racial groups in this dataset: American Indians or Alaska Natives, Asian or Pacific Islanders, Black or African Americans, and Whites. 



Using the normal approximation to the binomial distribution (without continuity correction), calculate z statistics for assessing whether the proportion of boys is .51 in each of the 4 racial groups, where n is the total number of births in a particular cohort, p = .51, q = 1 - p = .49, and x is the number of boy births; z = ((x - np) / sqrt(npq) )



Under the null hypothesis that the proportion of boys should be 0.51, and under the normal approximation to the binomial distribution, the z statistics should have (approximately) standard normal distributions, (mean 0, standard deviation 1). Do any of the z statistics suggest that the proportion of boy births in any particular racial group differs significantly from .51?



Comment on your findings in your written report. Describe whether you think your results would change if we hadn’t limited consideration to the first-born.  Assignment  should be at least 250-500 words in APA format

Sex Ratio



The normal male to female live birth sex ratio ranges from about 1.03 to 1.07. The sex ratio is defined as the ratio of male births to female births. You might expect boy and girl births to be equally likely, but in fact, baby boys are somewhat more common than baby girls.



Higher sex ratios are thought to reflect prenatal sex selection, especially among cultures where sons are prized more heavily than daughters. We will review sex ratios in the United States as a whole, as well as in individual states, to determine whether sex ratios vary significantly among various ethnic and racial groups.



To do this analysis, we will utilize natality data for the United States, provided by the Centers for Disease Control. 



In the first part of the assignment, we will look at sex ratios for your home state, over the time period 1995 to 2002, by race. To obtain this information: 

  • Go the CDC Wonder website,
  • Click on Births under the WONDER Online Databases to bring you to the Natality Information screen
  • On this screen, click Natality for 1995-2002.
  • On the following screen, click I Agree in order to agree to abide by the government rules for data use (primarily, concerning confidentiality).
    • This will bring us to the Natality, 1995-2002 Request screen.
    • In the block 1. Organize table layout, group results by year, followed by race, and then gender.
    • In the block 2. Select maternal residence, choose your state.
    • You can leave blocks 3 through 6 at their default values (i.e., All).
    • Click Send.
  • A new screen will open, with data (births) tabulated by Year, Race, and Gender.
  • Click Export, click Save, and a text file named Natality, _1995-2002 .txt or something similar will be downloaded onto your computer.

We can now process the downloaded data in Excel. 

  • Load the text file into Excel. This will probably open the Text Import Wizard.
    • Accept the defaults, and you should have a spreadsheet with the natality data entered.
  • We will need to edit the data slightly before calculating sex ratios and drawing graphs of the sex ratios. To do this:
    • Scroll down to the end of the spreadsheet, and delete the rows with the extraneous information about the dataset. (This starts on or about row 203.)
    • You may also delete the columns with headings Year CodeRace Code, and Gender Code since we will not be using them, however this is not necessary.
    • Next, sort the data, in order to delete some extraneous rows. Select the remaining columns, choose Data > Sort, then sort by Race in ascending order.
    • Scroll down to the end of the worksheet, and delete all rows with blanks for Race.
    • We will now add a new column to the worksheet for ratios.
      • Go to the first blank column in the worksheet: this column should be immediately to the right of a column labeled Births.
      • In the first row of this column, type Ratios.
    • Now, we will calculate different proportions of births, using formulas in excel. It is important to use excel to do the calculation, because it will allow you to quickly complete all of the ratios.
      • First, calculate the ratio of female births to total births for the American Indian race (female births/total births).
      • Next, calculate the ratio of male births to total births for the American Indian race (male births/total births).
      • Finally, calculate the ratio of male births to female births (male births/total births)
      • If you don’t know how to do this calculation easily in Excel, please check out the screencast, which reviews this.
      • Once you have completed the first three cells in the ratio column, you can select them and copy them.
      • Select the remaining cells in the column and paste.
      • You have now completed calculating all of the ratios, however, you may wish to double check to ensure that the formulas have adjusted for each cell.     
    • Once you have the Ratio column filled out, select that column, then Copy.
    • With the column still selected you want to select, click Paste Special and then Values. This will convert the formulas you entered to numbers, so they do not change when you do the next sort.
  • Select all the columns, then Data>Sort>Notes in ascending order. We will be graphing the sex ratios for the years 1995 to 2002, by race.
    • Feel free to drop the two to four races that have the fewest numbers of births in your state.
  • Draw a line chart with markers with the year along the X-axis (we are looking at 1995 through 2002) and sex ratio along the Y-axis (with sex ratios typically between 1 and 1.1, though this may vary in your state).
    • If your version of excel has the Chart Wizard:
      • In step two of the Chart Wizard, choose the Series tab; in this window you’ll be adding all the information for the various plots.
      • Under category (X) axis labels, drag your mouse over the cells 1995, 1996... 2002.
      • For values, draw your mouse over the seven successive sex ratios for the particular racial group you chose; in the name box, enter the racial group; do this for each of the groups you want to display.
      • Select Next when you have finished with all the racial groups, and you will be brought to the Chart Options screen.
      • Here, you can customize your graph, with a title and X and Y axis labels (i.e., your state births, year, and sex ratio respectively).
      • Continue with Next, and finish the graph.
    • If your version of excel does not have the Chart Wizard, you will need to do some reformatting of your data before you can create a line chart. It is good practice to create a new worksheet in order to preserve your original data.
      • Your data should mimic the way you want your line chart to look. In this case, you want to create horizontal labels for each of the years (1995 through 2002) and vertical labels for each of the races. It should follow this format:

 

 Year 1

Year 2

Year 3
Race A



Ratio for Race A in Year 1Ratio for Race A in Year 2Ratio for Race A in Year 3
Race B



Ratio for Race B in Year 1Ratio for Race B in Year 2Ratio for Race B in Year 3

 

    • After you have reformatted your data, select all of the data, then select Insert, then Line, then Line with Markers.
    • You should now have a line chart with each race having its own line, the ratios on the Y-axis, and the years on the X-axis.
    • You may wish to modify the Y-axis by right-clicking on it. Your upper and lower values on the axis should be just above and below your highest and lowest ratio values.
  • In a Word document, paste the graph you created (or, alternatively, submit your Excel workbook along with the Word document) and describe your findings, making sure to:
    • Summarize the sex ratios for each of the racial groups.
    • Explain whether the sex ratios are relatively constant through the 1995 to 2002 period for all of the racial groups or if there are trends?
    • Explain any racial groups that have noticeably higher or lower sex ratios than other groups.
    • Explain the conclusions you are drawing from your graph.



In the second part of this assignment, you will undertake some formal statistical procedures with the natality data. We will repeat the previous steps, with some slight modifications.

  • Return to the CDC Wonder website.
  • Click on Births under the WONDER Online Databases to get to the Natality Information screen.
  • Select Natality for 2007 - 2012.
  • On the next screen, click I Agree in order to agree to abide by the government rules for data use (primarily, concerning confidentiality).
  • This will bring us to the Natality, 2007-2012 Request screen.
    • In block 1. Organize table layout, group results by race and then gender (not year).
    • In block 2. Select maternal residence, choose your state.
    • You can leave block 3 at its default values (typically, All).
    • In block 4. Select birth characteristics; select All Years under Year, and 1st child born alive to mother under Live Birth Order.
    • Blocks 5 and 6 can be left at their default values.
  • Click Send. A new screen will open, with data (births) tabulated by race and gender.
  • Click Export, click Save, and a text file named Natality 2007-2012.txt (or something similar) will be downloaded onto your computer.



We have only four racial groups in this dataset: American Indians or Alaska Natives, Asian or Pacific Islanders, Black or African Americans, and Whites. 



Using the normal approximation to the binomial distribution (without continuity correction), calculate z statistics for assessing whether the proportion of boys is .51 in each of the 4 racial groups, where n is the total number of births in a particular cohort, p = .51, q = 1 - p = .49, and x is the number of boy births; z = ((x - np) / sqrt(npq) )



Under the null hypothesis that the proportion of boys should be 0.51, and under the normal approximation to the binomial distribution, the z statistics should have (approximately) standard normal distributions, (mean 0, standard deviation 1). Do any of the z statistics suggest that the proportion of boy births in any particular racial group differs significantly from .51?



Comment on your findings in your written report. Describe whether you think your results would change if we hadn’t limited consideration to the first-born.  Assignment  should be at least 250-500 words in APA format

A poll of 1,068 adult Americans reveals that 52% of the voters surveyed prefer the Democratic candidate for the presidency. At the 0.05 significance level, test the claim that more than half of all voters prefer the Democrat.
A. Reject the null hypothesis. Conclude that there is insufficient evidence that more than half of all voters prefer Democrats.
 
B. Do not reject the null hypothesis. Conclude that there is sufficient evidence that more than half of all voters prefer Democrats.
 
C. Reject the null hypothesis. Conclude that there is sufficient evidence that more than half of all voters prefer Democrats.
 
D. Do not reject the null hypothesis. Conclude that there is insufficient evidence that more than half of all voters prefer Democrats.
 
Reset Selection
The owner of a football team claims that the average attendance at home games is over 4000, and he is therefore justified in moving the team to a city with a larger stadium. Assume that a hypothesis test of the claim has been conducted and that the conclusion of the test was to reject the null hypothesis. Identify the population to which the results of the test apply.
A. All games played by the team in question in which the attendance is over 4000
 
B. All future home games to be played by the team in question
 
C. All home games played by the team in question
 
D. None of the populations given are appropriate
 
Reset Selection

In 1990, the average duration of long-distance telephone calls originating in one town was 9.4 minutes. A long-distance telephone company wants to perform a hypothesis test to determine whether the average duration of long-distance phone calls has changed from the 1990 mean of 9.4 minutes. The mean duration for a random sample of 50 calls originating in the town was 8.6 minutes. Does the data provide sufficient evidence to conclude that the mean call duration, µ, is different from the 1990 mean of 9.4 minutes? Perform the appropriate hypothesis test using a significance level of 0.01. Assume that = 4.8 minutes.

A. With a z of -1.2 there is sufficient evidence to conclude that the mean 

value has changed from the 1990 mean of 9.4 minutes.
 
B. With a P-value of 0.2302 there is not sufficient evidence to conclude 

that the mean value is less than the 1990 mean of 9.4 minutes.
 
C. With a P-value of 0.2302 there is sufficient evidence to conclude that 

the mean value is less than the 1990 mean of 9.4 minutes.
 
D. With a z of –1.2 there is not sufficient evidence to conclude that the 

mean value has changed from the 1990 mean of 9.4 minutes.
 
Reset Selection

 A researcher wants to check the claim that convicted burglars spend an average of 18.7 months in jail. She takes a random sample of 35 such cases from court files and finds that  months. Assume that the population standard deviation is 7 months. Test the null hypothesis that µ = 18.7 at the 0.05 significance level.

A.

Do not reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the claim that the mean is different from 18.7 months is supported.

 
B.

Do not reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the claim that the mean is different from 18.7 months cannot be supported.

 
C.

Reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the claim that the mean is different from 18.7 months is supported.

 
D.

Reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the claim that the mean is different from 18.7 months cannot be supported.

 
Reset Selection



 What's This?
A researcher claims that the amounts of acetaminophen in a certain brand of cold tablets have a mean different from the 600 mg claimed by the manufacturer. Test this claim at the 0.02 level of significance. The mean acetaminophen content for a random sample of n = 41 tablets is 603.3 mg. Assume that the population standard deviation is 4.9 mg.
A. Since the test statistic is greater than the critical z, there is sufficient evidence to accept the null hypothesis and to support the claim that the mean content of acetaminophen is 600 mg.
 
B. Since the test statistic is greater than the critical z, there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis and to support the claim that the mean content of acetaminophen is not 600 mg.
 
C. Since the test statistic is less than the critical z, there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis and to support the claim that the mean content of acetaminophen is not 600 mg.
 
D. Since the test statistic is greater than the critical z, there is insufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis and to support the claim that the mean content of acetaminophen is not 600 mg.
 
Reset Selection
A long-distance telephone company claims that the mean duration of long-distance telephone calls originating in one town was greater than 9.4 minutes, which is the average for the state. Determine the conclusion of the hypothesis test assuming that the results of the sampling do not lead to rejection of the null hypothesis.
A. Conclusion: Support the claim that the mean is less than 9.4 minutes.
 
B. Conclusion: Support the claim that the mean is greater than 9.4 minutes.
 
C. Conclusion: Support the claim that the mean is equal to 9.4 minutes.
 
D. Conclusion: Do not support the claim that the mean is greater than 9.4 minutes.
 
Reset Selection
A psychologist claims that more than 29 percent of the professional population suffers from problems due to extreme shyness. Assuming that a hypothesis test of the claim has been conducted and that the conclusion is failure to reject the null hypothesis, state the conclusion in non-technical terms.
A. There is sufficient evidence to support the claim that the true proportion is less than 29 percent.
 
B. There is not sufficient evidence to support the claim that the true proportion is greater than 29 percent.
 
C. There is sufficient evidence to support the claim that the true proportion is equal to 29 percent.
 
D. There is sufficient evidence to support the claim that the true proportion is greater than 29 percent.
 
Reset Selection

The principal of a middle school claims that annual incomes of the families of the seventh-graders at his school vary more than the annual incomes of the families of the seventh-graders at a neighboring school, which have variation described by s = $13,700. Assume that a hypothesis test of the claim has been conducted and that the conclusion of the test was to reject the null hypothesis. Identify the population to which the results of the test apply.

A. The current seventh graders at the principal’s school
 
B. Seventh graders’ families at the school with a standard deviation of $13,700
 
C. All of the families of the class of seventh graders at the principal’s school
 
D. All seventh graders’ families
 
Reset Selection
The owner of a football team claims that the average attendance at home games is over 3000, and he is therefore justified in moving the team to a city with a larger stadium. Assuming that a hypothesis test of the claim has been conducted and that the conclusion is failure to reject the null hypothesis, state the conclusion in non-technical terms.
A. There is sufficient evidence to support the claim that the mean attendance is greater than 3000.
 
B. There is sufficient evidence to support the claim that the mean attendance is equal to 3000.
 
C. There is not sufficient evidence to support the claim that the mean attendance is greater than 3000.
 
D. There is not sufficient evidence to support the claim that the mean attendance is less than 3000.
 
Reset Selection
A consumer advocacy group claims that the mean amount of juice in a 16 ounce bottled drink is not 16 ounces, as stated by the bottler. Determine the conclusion of the hypothesis test assuming that the results of the sampling lead to rejection of the null hypothesis.
A. Conclusion: Support the claim that the mean is equal to 16 ounces.
 
B. Conclusion: Support the claim that the mean is greater than 16 ounces.
 
C. Conclusion: Support the claim that the mean is not equal to 16 ounces.
 
D. Conclusion: Support the claim that the mean is less than 16 ounces.
 
Reset Selection

In 1990, the average duration of long-distance telephone calls originating in one town was 9.3 minutes. A long-distance telephone company wants to perform a hypothesis test to determine whether the average duration of long-distance phone calls has changed from the 1990 mean of 9.3 minutes. Formulate the null and alternative hypotheses for the study described.

A.

Ho: µ = 9.3 minutes     H a : µ < 9.3 minutes

 
B.

Ho: µ = 9.3 minutes     H a : µ > 9.3 minutes

 
C.

Ho: µ = 9.3 minutes      H a : µ ¹ 9.3 minutes

 
D.

Ho: µ ¹ 9.3 minutes     H a : µ = 9.3 minutes

 
Reset Selection
A supplier of DVDs claims that no more than 1% of the DVDs are defective. In a random sample of 600 DVDs, it is found that 3% are defective, but the supplier claims that this is only a sample fluctuation. At the 0.01 level of significance, test the supplier’s claim that no more than 1% are defective.
A. Do not reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is evidence to support the claim that more than 1% of the DVDs are defective.
 
B. Reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is insufficient evidence to support the claim that more than 1% of the DVDs are defective.
 
C. Do not reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is insufficient evidence to support the claim that more than 1% of the DVDs are defective.
 
D. Reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is sufficient evidence to support the claim that more than 1% of the DVDs are defective.
 
Reset Selection
 

A study of a brand of “in the shell peanuts” gives the following results:

A significant event at the 0.01 level is a fan getting a bag with how many peanuts?

A. 30 peanuts
 
B. 25 or 30 peanuts
 
C. 25 or 55 peanuts
 
D. 25 peanuts
 
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without computing a P-value, determine whether the alternate hypothesis is supported and give a reason for your conclusion.

A.

is less than 1 standard deviation above the claimed mean.

 
B.

is more than 4 standard deviations above the claimed mean.

 
C.

is less than 1 standard deviation above the claimed mean.

 
D.

is more than 4 standard deviations above the claimed mean.

 
Reset Selection
A right-tailed test is conducted at the 5% significance level. Which of the following z-scores is the smallest one in absolute value that leads to rejection of the null hypothesis?  
A. 1.61
 
B. 1.85
 
C. -1.98
 
D. -2.06
 
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 What's This?
 

In the past, the mean running time for a certain type of flashlight battery has been 9.8 hours. The manufacturer has introduced a change in the production method and wants to perform a hypothesis test to determine whether the mean running time has increased as a result. The hypotheses are:

H0 : µ  = 9.8 hours

Ha : µ  > 9.8 hours

Suppose that the results of the sampling lead to rejection of the null hypothesis. Classify that conclusion as a Type I error, a Type II error, or a correct decision, if in fact the mean running time has not increased.

A. Type I error
 
B. Type II error
 
C. Correct decision
 
D. Can not be determined from this information
 
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 What's This?
A two-tailed test is conducted at the 5% significance level. Which of the z-scores below is the smallest one that leads to rejection of the null hypothesis?
A. 1.12
 
B. 1.48
 
C. 1.84
 
D. 2.15
 
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 What's This?
A two-tailed test is conducted at the 0.10 significance level. What is the P-value required to reject the null hypothesis?
A. Greater than or equal to .010
 
B. Greater than or equal to 0.05
 
C. Less than or equal to 0.10
 
D. Less than or equal to 0.05
 
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 What's This?
A psychologist claims that more than 19 percent of the population suffers from professional problems due to extreme shyness. Assume that a hypothesis test of the claim has been conducted and that the conclusion of the test was to reject the null hypothesis. Identify the population to which the results of the test apply.
A. The population is all shy workers.
 
B. The population cannot be identified from the description of the study.
 
C. The population is all American workers.
 
D. The population is all American professional workers (doctors, lawyers, CPA’s, and the like..
 
Reset Selection



 What's This?

A manufacturer claims that the mean amount of juice in its 16 ounce bottles is 16.1 ounces. A consumer advocacy group wants to perform a hypothesis test to determine whether the mean amount is actually less than this. The mean volume of juice for a random sample of 70 bottles was 15.94 ounces. Do the data provide sufficient evidence to conclude that the mean amount of juice for all 16-ounce bottles, µ, is less than 16.1 ounces? Perform the appropriate hypothesis test using a significance level of 0.10. Assume that s = 0.9 ounces.  

A.

The z of - 1.49 provides sufficient evidence to conclude that the mean amount of juice is less than 16.1 oz.

 
B.

The z of - 1.49 does not provide sufficient evidence to conclude that the mean amount of juice is less than 16.1 oz.

 
C.

The z of - 0.1778 does not provide sufficient evidence to conclude that the mean amount of juice is less than 16.1 oz.

 
D.

The z of - 0.1778 provides sufficient evidence to conclude that the mean amount of juice is less than 16.1 oz.

 
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 What's This?

kindly check attached.....2 D.Q......1 paragraph for each...NO PLAGIARISM 

Final Project



The Final Project should demonstrate an understanding of the reading assignments, class discussions, your own research and the application of new knowledge.  It should utilize previous skills developed in foundational health care courses and apply them within the context and viewpoint of  a health care administrator and their role in managing health and human services.

For the Final Project, select one of the following topics and conduct scholarly and professional research while integrating the course’s learning outcomes to address a selected topic: 

  • Research specific leadership and management traits and theories necessary for managing a multidisciplinary and multicultural health care organization to promote organizational effectiveness.  



  • Present how strategic planning, performance improvement, and information systems are interrelated and fundamental to the delivery of quality health care. 



  • Examine the financial characteristics of health care delivery along with managing costs, revenues, and human resources. 



  • Analyze ethical and legal concepts, including specific federal regulations, required of health care organizations to ensure the delivery of high quality health care that protects patient safety.  

 

Research Requirements

Academic research and papers must meet certain standards of quality that are recognized by the academic community.  What constitutes quality academic research?

  • The use of primary (original), credible sources written by experts in the field of study. 
  • Ensuring secondary sources are supported by research in primary sources. 
  • Making sure all research is relevant and that material used is pertinent to the area of study. 
  • In graduate work, the use of peer-reviewed journal articles (journal articles reviewed by recognized experts in the relevant field of study) is required. 
  • Keep in mind that educational websites may be appropriate, in some cases, but should be evaluated carefully. 

The Ashford University Library offers many excellent databases and other resources to assist you in conducting scholarly research.



What sources are not acceptable for academic research and referencing?

  • Encyclopedias 
  • Dictionaries 
  • Wikipedia, other wikis, or blogs 
  • Websites and other sources that do not provide quality researched materials (e.g., they do not use credible sources to support the information in the document). 

All research must reflect professional academic protocol and must be documented according to APA standards as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.



Creating the Final Project



You may choose to present your research is the form of an eight- to ten-page research paper (excluding title and reference pages) or a comprehensive 10- to 15-slide PowerPoint presentation (excluding title and reference slides) with detailed speaker notes.  In either case, the content of the assignment must include each of the elements listed below: 

 
  1. Introduction 

    Describe the issue.  Include why it was selected, the perspective of your approach to the issue, and the scope of the paper or presentation.  In essence, describe in this area what is being covered.  Be specific and to the point.  This is an important part of the project as it engages the reader and sets the scope of the research. 



  2. Statement of the Issue to be Investigated 

    Describe why the topic is a relevant problem or issue.  It is important to provide literature sources in support of the importance of the need/issue/topic.  For example, if you are interested in researching the issue of nutrition in early childhood brain development among American children – cite literature identifying the scope of the problem (for example:  the number of malnourished children, the implications of malnourishment on learning and brain development; and long term implications).  Overall, this section should detail what makes this topic or issue so important that you are spending time and energy researching it.  What is the impact of the problem if nothing is done to correct the situation? 



  3. Research Sources 

    This section documents the relevant research reflecting the topic of the Final Project.  In this section, paraphrased narratives of the actual research studies are reported and should represent the current research related to the topic area.  In general, your research should:

    1. Identify your chosen topic and what has happened in the specific research of the topic (describe the study, sample, findings, important points from the discussion in the research article, and any variables that may influence the findings of the research). 
    2. Discuss any key elements of the topic that may be instructional, legal, ethical, social, etc. (what is projected if nothing is done? what has been tried?).  Support this section with relevant resource citations. 
    3. Provide an analysis of the research articles used, including: explaining what was done in the study, what the target population was, information about who did the research (the author), what was found with the study, and any implications of the findings to your topic or issue.  
  4. Conclusion 

    In this section, provide a general, but thorough summary reviewing:  why the topic was selected; the problem or issue briefly stated; the approach that was used; findings; and solutions.  In this section, the reader or audience should have a good idea of what the researcher did and what was found.   



  5. References

    The references should be listed on a new page or slide and must be formatted according to APA requirements as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.  You must use a minimum of six to eight scholarly sources.  

Read the case study Is It Management or Is It Public Relations? Only Your Admnistrator Knows For Sure from your textbook and answer the questions 'For Discussion' found at the end of the case study. For each set of questions, you will need to upload to the Assignment Dropbox a 500 word minimum response that takes into account your synthesis of the case study supported by the module content. Therefore, you should reference key concepts from the module to support you answer.

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