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Submitted by Sammy on Thu, 2012-05-10 18:19
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Should men get paternity leave from work ???

It is argument essay and u have to persuade some one to change their idea about paternity leave >> for example if u like the idea that men get paternity leave from work u have to come up with reasons that to change people's mind to be with u >>

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Submitted by SHIR15 on Mon, 2012-05-14 05:43
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PARENTAL LEAVE.

Parental leave is an employee benefit that provides paid or unpaid time off work to care for a child or make arrangements for the child's welfare. Often, the term parental leave includes; a) Maternity leave, b) Paternity leave, c) and adoption leave. These leave offers job protection, and can be paid or unpaid, depending on the employer. Often the minimum benefits are stipulated by law.

In most countries, paid parental leave (typically maternity leave) is available for those who have worked for their current employer for a certain period of time. National laws vary widely according to the politics of each jurisdiction.

There are 3 different types of child care policies namely;

1) Parental leave policies- Assists parents that are employed prior to giving birth in order to remain at home for a period of time so that they are able to care for their own the child.

A key component of a good parental leave policy is that it should be designed in such a way

that both the mother and the father will use it. If it is only used by the mothers, it is bad for

gender equality; a good leave policy is taken by both parents. This is good for the family and

good for the children. This means periods of well-paid leave for fathers and for mothers only

to use; leave that is a ‘family’ entitlement is invariably used mainly by mothers. The worst

kind of leave, in terms of gender equality, is long periods of ‘family’ entitlement that is low

paid or unpaid; this will either not be used at all or only used by women. [1]

2) Child care policies- Parents get assistance in non parental care for the child by subsidizing whatever type of care the parents select, or parent’s public programs. "Child care programs serve both working and non-working parents"

3) Early childhood benefits- is the newest policy, this policy supports parents in their everyday care of their child. "The benefits by the government are cash grants that can be use to cover the costs of caring for and infant or toddler"

Only four countries have no national law mandating paid time off for new parents: Liberia, Papua New Guinea, Swaziland, and the United States. In the U.S., the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) mandates up to 12 weeks of (potentially unpaid) job-protected leave, including parental leave, for many American workers. Sub-national laws also vary; for example the U.S. state of California does mandate paid family leave, including parental leave for same-sex partners.

Legal requirements for parental leave benefits do not always reflect actual practice. In some countries with relatively weak requirements, individual employers choose to provide benefits beyond those required by law. In some countries, laws requiring parental leave benefits are widely ignored in practice. [2]

Many workers in the United States are covered under the FMLA, and are thus eligible to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave upon the birth or adoption of a child. However, due to economic concerns, parents often do not utilize this eligibility to its fullest extent, and as result, some studies show that the FMLA has had a limited impact on the leave-taking behavior of new parents. Though specific amounts can vary, having a child (including the cost of high-quality childcare) costs families approximately $11,000 in the first year.

These financial issues contribute to new mothers in the United States returning to work quicker than new mothers in European countries – approximately one-third of women in the United States return to work within three months of giving birth, compared to approximately five per cent in the UK, Germany, and Sweden, and just over half of mothers in the United States with a child under the age of one work.

Fathers tend to use less parental leave than mothers in the United States as well as in other countries where paid leave is available, and this difference may have factors other than the financial constraints which impact both parents. [3]

MATERNITY LEAVE.

Maternity leave refers to the period of time that a new mother takes off from work following the birth of her baby. Many companies have similar policies for fathers, which allow for paternity leave. Maternity leave is usually created from a variety of benefits that include sick leave, vacation, holiday time, personal days, short-term disability and unpaid family leave time. It is important to plan your maternity leave so that you and your family do not experience any unexpected financial challenges and you can make the most of your time with your baby.

Short-term disability is a type of coverage that pays your salary, or at least a portion of it, for a certain number of weeks because of medically related needs. Larger companies frequently include this benefit, and some states have mandates requiring that it is included in your benefits. You may also purchase this type of coverage from your local insurance provider. The percentages paid and the lengths of time of coverage vary. The coverage time may also be affected by complicated births (i.e. cesarean delivery), so it is important to confirm what your policy covers.

It is possible that you may have coverage from multiple avenues, so it is important to confirm what the policies are with your company. Any monies paid to you from your employer are taxable, but it is possible that this may be offset by the new deduction that comes with your new baby.

Most companies allow you to use your sick, vacation and holiday time towards your maternity leave. Some companies require that you use these benefits first before using any disability or unpaid time. It is important to check with your human resources department to confirm the policies related to using your sick, vacation, and holiday time in relation to your maternity leave. Also, question any restrictions on how it is used with disability and/or unpaid leave time.

How unpaid leave works;

The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) is a law that requires most companies to allow their employees up to 12 weeks of unpaid family leave time after the birth of their child. The FMLA applies to both men and women and is also available for those that adopt a child. If the parents work for the same company, the 12 weeks is then divided between the two of them and is an accumulation of both of their time (i.e.,. each could take 6 weeks off; one could take 4 weeks while the other takes 8 weeks).

There are exceptions to the FMLA which release a business from the obligation of allowing unpaid time off. These exceptions include the size of the company (less than 50 employees), the time of employment (at least 12 months), and level of wages (top 10%). Employees with incomes that account for the top 10% of wages for the business may not have access to the unpaid benefit if the company can show with evidence that your absence creates significant financial harm to the organization. Some states have family leave acts that are broader than the federal mandate.

Check with your human resource department regarding your family leave time:

• Determine if there is a state family leave mandate.

• Find the policies and restrictions on using vacation, sick, and unpaid time together.

• Check with your boss about any concerns related to your time away.

• Inquire about what happens to your benefits while you are on leave, whether or not anything changes, and who pays your premiums while you are on leave.

For families who can afford it, unpaid family leave is an excellent opportunity to further bond with your baby, establish the baby’s routine, get rest, and organize things around the house.

It is even more important to plan your maternity leave when you are using unpaid leave because there is a greater probability of experiencing financial challenges.

Some women begin taking their leave a week to a month before the expected birth because of discomfort or the desire for time to prepare. Others wait until the last moment so they can maximize their time with the baby once it arrives. The FMLA requires that you provide your employer with at least a 30 day notice of your intentions to take unpaid family time. Your boss will appreciate any additional advance notice to plan around the time you are absent.

Recommendations for Maternity Leave:

There are a number of things you can do to make your maternity leave the best possible for both you and your employer:

• Check in with your human resources department to find out the details about your maternity leave options. This will help you plan for your best maternity leave options.

• Sit down with your partner and evaluate what time you can afford to take. It is better for you and your employer to know the plan ahead of schedule.

• After completing your first trimester, start the communication with human resources and those affected by your leave to help all parties prepare. Some employers are less friendly to pregnancy than others. You may need to evaluate the best time to share the news based on previous experiences you have witnessed in the office.

• Provide your boss with suggestions and strategies to address your duties while you are gone, insights on what projects you are working on, and suggested co-workers to meet your responsibilities while on leave. This can help overcome potential concerns noted earlier. [4]

ADOPTION LEAVE.

Adoption leave is leave you can take when you are adopting or fostering a child.

Adoption leave will enable you to get used to the new situation in your family. Adoption

leave is sometimes also called foster leave. [5]

An eligible employee can take up to 52 weeks adoption leave. This is made up of 26 weeks Ordinary Adoption Leave and 26 weeks Additional Adoption Leave. To qualify for adoption leave, an employee must:

• be newly matched with a child for adoption by an adoption agency

• have worked continuously for their employer for 26 weeks ending with the week in which they are notified of being matched with a child for adoption.

Adoption leave and pay are available to:

• individuals who adopt

• one member of a couple where a couple adopts jointly (the couple must choose which partner takes adoption leave).

The partner of an individual who adopts, or the other member of a couple who are adopting jointly, may be entitled to paternity or additional paternity leave and pay.

Employees must give their employer documentary proof to show that you have the right to paid Statutory Adoption Leave. This is usually a matching certificate from your adoption agency. The adoption agency must be recognized in the UK.

Statutory adoption leave can start either:

• from the date the child starts living with the employee

• up to 14 days before the date the child is expected to start living with the employee.

Employees should tell the employer within seven days of being told that they have been matched with a child, if this is not possible they must tell the employer as soon as possible.

Some employers may offer adoption leave and pay that are more favorable than the statutory scheme; this may form part of the terms of your contract of employment.

Statutory adoption pay will be payable in the same way and at the same time by the employer. If the employee qualifies it will be payable for 39 weeks at the statutory rate. [6]

PATERNITY LEAVE.

Paternity leave is a form of parental leave offered to the father of a new child so that he can bond with the child and participate in childcare tasks. As a general rule, in regions where paternity leave is governed or mandated by law, the leave is available for births and adoptions, reflecting the importance of adopting a new member of the family. Laws about paternity leave and parental leave in general vary around the world, with some nations having very generous terms such as up to two years of paid leave for new parents, while others have fewer measures in place to promote and protect parental leave.

There are a number of reasons to take paternity leave. From a purely practical point of view, integrating a new infant or child into a household is a lot of work, especially for new parents, and having a parent at home at all times may be necessary in the first few weeks. Scheduling paternity leave to coincide with maternity leave also allows a father to help out in the days and weeks following a birth, especially if the birth was difficult.

Emotionally, paternity leave can also be very important. New parents usually want to spend time getting to know their child, and establishing a bond with him or her. It can be stressful and unpleasant to be trapped at work all day while a new child is making developmental leaps and bounds at home. New fathers may also feel emotionally stressed by their inability to help out at home.

Paternity leave can be scheduled both before and after a birth, for varying amounts of time. In some nations, parents are specifically entitled to parental leave, and they cannot be penalized in any way for requesting leave in a timely fashion. Since birth can be unpredictable, parents usually try to schedule leave with some wiggle room so that they will be home at the right time. In some regions, people are entitled to full or partial pay during their parental leave and benefits such as health care continue through the leave.

In areas where paternity leave is not guaranteed by law, some proactive employers provide specific measures for leave, reflecting the fact that parenting is important to many people. In other instances, an employee may need to negotiate with an employer to obtain leave to care for a new child, and the employee may be forced to take a limited time off with no pay. Other employers may be willing to carry over vacation and sick days to accommodate a new father who wants to spend some time at home. [7]

It has been found that the reason many men avoid paternity leave is that because they can’t afford to take it, or either because they can’t spare the lost income from an unpaid leave or because they fear career repercussions if they’re out of the office. [8]

Accordind to the article ‘Policies to Assist Parents with Young Children’ by Christopher J. Ruhm, Governments enact parental leave entitlements to help parents balance the competing demands of work and family, to improve the labor market status of women (including reducing the “family gap” in earnings), and to enhance child and maternal health and development. Some European nations also use these policies in an effort to increase gender equity and raise fertility. Parental leave permits employees to take time off work, rather than having to quit, to care for a newborn or newly adopted child. Leave policies may therefore increase job continuity—the ability of parents to stay in their prebirth job—and so help them retain use of skills or knowledge specific to their employer, potentially enhancing productivity and resulting in better long-term earnings and career advancement. Leave may also lower stress by decreasing uncertainty about future employment.

Despite the government’s effort in allowing men to go for parental leaves, the number of men going for paternity leave still remains low, and that when the question comes in, it is reasonable for men to go for a paternity leave?

According to the Original Article of ‘Who takes paternity leave? A cohort study on prior social and health characteristics among fathers in Stockholm’ by Anna Ma°nsdottera, Peeter Fredlunda, Johan Hallqvistb, and Cecilia Magnussona, when a child is born, by tradition the father takes on the breadwinning whereas the mother takes on the care of the child. These roles contribute to and interact with gender division in society, where men dominate power, influence, and resources. Global variation is great, but everywhere men are more present outside the home than women – who dominate the sphere of children and household.

Trends toward societal gender equality – similarity between sexes in every sphere of life, is not symmetrical, where women and men alter their positions concurrently. Early gender equality strategies usually focus on women’s basic rights regarding reproduction, nutrition, education, influence, and resources. A gender equal society requires that men increase their involvement as caring fathers.

Therefore, it will be just reasonable for both the parents to be responsible to matters related to childbearing, Since both the man and the woman were responsible during the time of conserving the baby, hence, they should also both be actively involved and be responsible during the child birth. it will not be logical for only women to take parental leave(maternity leave) will their men don’t, so be fair and reasonable they should both get parental leave when it turns to matters of child responsibility.

According to the same article, a father’s opportunity to leave work to care for his child depends on formal social support. About one-third of countries offer some such employment benefit – with great variation in extent and characteristics. In 1974, Sweden became the first to permit fathers to take paid parental leave to achieve greater gender equality, enhancing the role of men in household work and childcare, and of women in the workplace. Sweden ranks high in equality between women and men in human capital, economic resources, and political power, even though men still take only 20 per cent of parental leave days to which they are entitled.

There are some things that men as parents should experience when their babies are still young, the things that you will never experience when that stage passes. When a man takes a paternity leave, the extended time he will spend with his new born baby will allow him to bond and give him a chance to learn the many unexpected, frightening and wonderful things that come with parenthood. It can be the best few weeks or months you’ll ever spend and also the extended interaction with a baby early in life, especially wearing the child in a carrier or sling, “can foster a closer bond between a father and child, an attachment that can form the foundation of a close lifelong relationship. These are things that one should not miss in life [10]

It has also been found that babies who spend more time with their fathers within the first year of their life experience increased vocal activity and faster-developing motor skills versus those who do not. And also lasting effects of paternal involvement begin as early as birth and include better grades and even higher wages. [11]

So to be fairly enough, you cannot deny your new born baby these happy moments just because of your job, give him or her that special time that comes ones in a life time, because if you miss it , you will never have it, therefore as a parent, you should take just a few weeks off to concentrate on your family and experience being a father.

According to the same article, ( Original Article of ‘Who takes paternity leave? A cohort study on prior social and health characteristics among fathers in Stockholm’), more parental leave for fathers may advance a public health objective – reducing health damaging stress among women associated with heavy workloads and multiple roles. Paternity leave may benefit the health of off-spring as well, as studies suggest that close involvement of the father improves intellectual, social, and emotional development. Caring duties could also promote health and longevity of the fathers themselves, as paternity leave is associated with decreased sick leave, inpatient care, and all cause mortality, as well as alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. Caring duties are likely to protect against risky lifestyles; heavy drinking interferes with practical and emotional childcare, and risky behaviors, in general, threaten child security. Thus men who adopt caring roles may develop more cautious attitudes and behaviors. Alternatively, expansion of roles offers health advantages because stress in one area of life (for example, marriage) may be compensated for by positive circumstances in others (for example, success in the workplace).’

Take a situation where both parents are working, then the wife is pregnant. Normally women in many occasions are viewed to be responsible for both the pregnancy and giving birth since they are in-separately involved. Some people might see parental leave to be only important to mothers but I disagree with this. During the pregnancy period, There comes a times when women cannot handle all the tasks by themselves, at this point men are required to chip in, in providing assistance to them, for instance cases like;

 during late pregnancy stages women are fond to be very delicate, just a little overwork or stress can trigger her to give birth earlier than expected which might bring some complications which could have been avoided if precautions were taken that is, if the husbands could have given a helping hand.

 After child birth, women are usually weak after giving birth and they find it tiresome dealing with the house chores and the baby.

 During child birth, we do not know if the woman would deliver safely, complications might arise during child birth which might force the doctors to operate on her and it is just reasonable that she get assistance after giving birth because she will be weak and will also need time for recovery.

Therefore, in situations like these women needs full support and help from their husbands and if in these periods of time he still goes to job, then it is reasonable for him to take a paternity leave so that he can have plenty of time to give assistance to his wife or woman and also to their new born baby. By doing so, he will not only be helping his wife and the baby but also himself as well.

Citing another example where a man did not take a paternity leave and his wife is going to deliver or has just delivered, the man would not concentrate on his job, he will always be worrying and thinking about his wife and the baby, and this is because he is away and with all these happening, his job performance will obviously be poor. So it is usually advisable for men to take some few weeks off to take care of their family issues and when they came back to their normal jobs, they will be fresh and ready to start their jobs, the stress will be over and he will now concentrate and focus on his job.

According to the article ‘Policies to Assist Parents with Young Children’ by Christopher J. Ruhm, balancing the competing needs of work and family life is a challenge for most households, but the difficulties may be greatest for households with young children, defined here as newborns through age five. Parents in many of these families struggle to find sufficient time both to fulfill work responsibilities and provide the intensive care that young children require.

Generally childbearing is not an easy task, it cannot be managed by mothers only, the children’s father should also help to reduce the heavy task. It should be a joint responsibility for both parents and that is why I do believe that it is important and reasonable for men to get paternity leave when it gets to the matter of child bearing, this way both parent will be able to help one another if they both for sometimes get parental leave to care for their children, they will be saving both their work and their jobs at the same time.

I also do believe that there is a convincing economic and social argument for giving dads more opportunities to stay with their kids. The number of female breadwinners is on the up; anecdotally, a quick scan of our circle of friends has a fair number of women who earn more than their husbands (although some might not like to admit it).

Financially it makes sense for women to return to work, but without parental leave extending to fathers, for many the only option has been to put children into nursery care. Not that nursery care is second best, but in those early days children thrive with a primary care at home, and many parents would like to give their children that crucial start in life.

Keeping women active (and happy) as workers, while giving children the best start, is a winning strategy for our economy and will help cash-strapped households too. Breadwinning and childcare should both be non-gender opportunities.

Children learn through being exposed to things, so having the chance to learn from both mummy and daddy will have a positive impact.

However, there is a fascinating footnote given all the naysayers. There's not actually more parental leave, it's just a division of the existing benefits that have been exclusive to women – like a slide rule for parents. With the majority of women in work, the economy is unlikely to suffer a banker-style crash because mums and dads swap an existing entitlement. [12]

Therefore there are so much to benefits when a man decides to take a paternity leave than if he decides not to. Job and family issues goes together and there is no way one can assume his family matters/issues and perform well in his job. You have to create some time off to take care of your family.

1. Articles:

[a]Original Article

Who takes paternity leave? A cohort study on

prior social and health characteristics among

fathers in Stockholm.

By by Anna Ma°nsdottera, Peeter Fredlunda, JohnHallqvistb and Cecilia Magnussona.

[b] Policies to Assist Parents with Young Children’

by Christopher J. Ruhm.

1. Book:

Improving the Quality of Childhood in the European Union:

Parental Leave Policies

By Professor Peter Moss

Co-author of the book 'The Politics of Parental Leave Policies, Children, Gender and the

Labor Market'.

citations:

[1] http://www.allianceforchildhood.eu/files/book2010/QOC10%20MossREV.pdf

[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parental_leave#Americas

[3]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parental_Leave_Economics

[4] http://americanpregnancy.org/planningandpreparing/maternityleave.html

[5] http://www.government.nl/files/documents-and-publications/leaflets/2011/10/20/q-a-adoption-leave/q-a-adoption-leave.pdf

[6] http://www.acas.org.uk/index.aspx?articleid=1828

[7] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parental_Leave_Economics

[8] http://blogs.wsj.com/juggle/2010/02/18/figuring-out-paternity-leave/

[9]http://www.icaew.com/en/library/subject-gateways/law/employment-law/maternity-paternity-and-adoption/legal-alert/additional-paternity-rights-for-employee-fathers-take-effect

[10]http://www.ehow.com/about_4707290_paternity-leave.html

[11]http://blogs.wsj.com/juggle/2010/02/18/figuring-out-paternity-leave/

[12]http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/joepublic/2011/apr/04/paternity-leave-dads-shared

Answer
Submitted by SHIR15 on Sat, 2012-05-12 19:02
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xxxxxxxx xxxxxx
xxxxxxxx xxxxx xx an xxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxx provides xxxx or xxxxxx xxxx off xxxx to care xxx x xxxxx xx make arrangements xxx the xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxx parental leave xxxxxxxxx a) xxxxxxxxx xxxxxx b) Paternity leave, c) and xxxxxxxx xxxxxx These xxxxx xxxxxx xxx protection, and can xx xxxx or unpaid, xxxxxxxxx xx the employer. Often xxx minimum xxxxxxxx xxx stipulated xx xxxx
xx xxxx xxxxxxxxxx paid parental leave xxxxxxxxxx maternity xxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxx for xxxxx xxx have xxxxxx xxx xxxxx current employer for a xxxxxxx xxxxxx of time. xxxxxxxx xxxx vary widely according to the politics xx each xxxxxxxxxxxxx
There xxx 3 different types xx child care policies namely;
xx xxxxxxxx leave policies- Assists xxxxxxx that xxx xxxxxxxx prior to xxxxxx xxxxx xx

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